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With an area of 70, Its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. Bavaria's capital and largest city, Munich , is the third- largest city in Germany. The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and formation as a duchy in the 6th century AD through the Holy Roman Empire to becoming an independent kingdom and a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from to , when Bavaria became a republic.

Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia. The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps , previously inhabited by Celts , which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, probably did not migrate from elsewhere.

Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. They first appear in written sources circa Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in Their daughter, Theodelinde , became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords.

Garibald's successor, Tassilo I , tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and From onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time.

His son, Theudebert , led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.

At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo , from neighbouring Alemannia modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria , completed the process of church organisation in partnership with St. Boniface , and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo.

He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After , however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in The deposition was not entirely legitimate.

The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk.

As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in , Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east.

The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the founding of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf , founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies.

They ruled for years, from to The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine Kurpfalz in German was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in , which they would subsequently hold for six centuries. The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in , Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital. In the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire , determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.

The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger. From onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.

The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.

In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I , [16] being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive. Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had. As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.

As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence. In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity. This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II.

Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states. On 12 November , Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration , releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government , or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner , [18] interpreted this as an abdication.

To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.

They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence. Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.

Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second. Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany. Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.

In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there. Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.

Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions. Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria.

Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk. The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments. In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.

The second communal layer exists out of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties. The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde. In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.

The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively. However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years. The last state elections were held on 15 September ; the CSU won an absolute majority in the state parliament [26] in spite of bad press surrounding a cronyism affair.

Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage. Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished. The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government.

The State Government is composed of the:. In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie English: This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums. In the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum.

Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs— referenda took place from through

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She reveals herself to be the former slave Cleonie, and he is kidnapped by Sioux and kept captive at Greasy Grass. He escapes just in time to take part in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, where he sees the defeat and death of Custer—possibly being the one who kills him. Flashman is captured, partly scalped and hidden by Frank Grouard , who reveals himself to be his illegitimate son from Cleonie.

Grouard breaks a promise to his mother and decides not to kill Flashman, but instead takes him back to Deadwood , Dakota Territory. Flashman also appears in another book by Fraser, Mr American , age 88, [55] while his father was one of the financial backers of the bare-knuckle boxer Tom Molineaux in Black Ajax.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Outline of Flashman. The great mass of manuscript known as the Flashman papers was discovered during a sale of household furniture The papers, which had apparently lain untouched for fifty years, in a tea chest The noise of his eruptions startles his horse to such an extent it bolts towards the Russian lines, speeding up the British advance. In a interview he said, "to me, the American Civil War is a colossal bore.

It was a rotten war, it's been done to death and I'm not terribly interested. An American wrote to me urging me to write it, saying it had to be the high point of Flashman's career.

I wrote back saying: The Crimea, the Indian Mutiny, these were the important things in Flashman's life. He was so disinterested that he fought on both sides'. He created Harry Flashman, tormentor of Tom Brown turned comical anti-hero". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February Allen, Bruce 1 September The World and I.

Fraser, George MacDonald Flashman and the Mountain of Light. Fraser, George MacDonald a. Fraser, George MacDonald b. Fraser, George MacDonald c. Flashman and the Redskins.

Fraser, George MacDonald d. Flashman and the Dragon. Flashman and the Angel of the Lord. Flashman at the Charge. Flashman in the Great Game. Flashman and the Tiger. Flashman on the March. Hitchens, Christopher March Encyclopedia of British Writers, 19th Century. Ramsay, Allan June Contemporary Review Company Ltd. Flashman Royal Flash Flash for Freedom! Works by George MacDonald Fraser. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 20 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Flashman's expulsion from Rugby School for drunkenness leads him to join the British Army. After an affair with a fellow-officer's lover, he fights a duel, but cheats.

He is posted to Scotland because of the affair, and is billeted with the Morrison family; he takes advantage of one of the daughters, Elspeth. After a forced marriage, Flashman is required to resign his position in the Hussars and instead is gazetted into a position with the East India Company. Fleeing from a police raid on a brothel he was visiting, Flashman meets Lola Montez and Otto von Bismarck. Some years later Flashman is tempted to Munich, where Bismarck has him abducted; he is blackmailed into imitating Prince Carl Gustaf, a fictional member of the Danish royal family.

Gustaf is to be married to Duchess Irma, the ruler of the fictional Duchy of Strackenz; according to Bismarck the prince has contracted a sexually transmitted disease , which would be embarrassing if uncovered by his future wife. This turns out to be a lie and the prince has been imprisoned in Jotunberg Castle.

Flashman is accompanied to Strackenz by Bismarck's accomplices, Rudi von Starnberg, Detchard and de Gautet, and is married to the Duchess. Shortly afterwards, while out hunting, Flashman finds out that Bismarck meant to double-cross him and kill him, but he turns the tables on his attacker and tortures the information out of him and kills him instead.

He is then captured by Strackenzian nationalists and forced to help them storm the Jotunberg Castle. They are successful, but Flashman and von Starnberg fight in the dungeon, with Flashman narrowly escaping death before escaping back to England, with the help of Montez, who robs him along the way.

Flashman is falsely accused of cheating at cards, and runs away from disgrace by accepting an offer of a berth on the slaving ship part owned by his father-in-law; the ship is captained by John Charity Spring, an ex- fellow of Oriel College, Oxford who quotes Latin and Greek at length. After sailing to Dahomey , Spring buys slaves from King Ghezo ; the deal goes wrong and the crew are attacked by Gezo's Amazons , resulting in the mortal wounding of the third mate, Mr Comber.

Comber dies, but admits to Flashman that he is a spy for the navy, giving Flashman his papers to prove his identity. The ship makes its way to America but is captured by the United States Navy. Flashman assumes the identity of Comber and escapes, hiding in the brothel of Susie Willinck. He is abducted by the Underground Railroad and forced to assist in transporting a slave to freedom in Canada.

He is accused of being an abolitionist and escapes, ending up employed as a slave driver on a plantation. Caught having sex with the owner's wife, he is himself sold into slavery, but escapes with a slave, before being assisted to freedom by junior congressman Abraham Lincoln. He returns to New Orleans and demands passage to Britain from Spring.

Flashman is ordered to protect and mentor William of Celle —a fictional cousin of Queen Victoria —during the Crimean War ; William is killed. He is taken into Russia and placed in the custody of Count Pencherjevsky; he also meets his old school friend Scud East, and Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev , a vicious Russian army captain. After overhearing plans for the Russian invasion of British India, Flashman and East escape, but Flashman is recaptured.

He is taken by Ignatiev across central Asia as part of his plans to conquer India, but is subsequently rescued from prison by cohorts of Yaqub Beg. Tajik and Uzbek warriors attack and destroy the Russian fleet with the aid of Flashman, who had been drugged with hashish.

Flashman is at Balmoral Castle as a guest of Queen Victoria; he meets Lord Palmerston , who recruits him to go to Jhansi in India and investigate rumours of a rebellion among the Sepoys.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital. In the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire , determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.

The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger. From onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.

The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.

In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I , [16] being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I. After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.

Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had. As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.

As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence. In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity. This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II.

Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states. On 12 November , Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration , releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government , or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner , [18] interpreted this as an abdication.

To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence.

Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second. Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany.

Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.

In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there. Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges. Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them.

The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions. Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria.

Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk. The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.

In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria. The second communal layer exists out of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties.

The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde. In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.

The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively. However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years. The last state elections were held on 15 September ; the CSU won an absolute majority in the state parliament [26] in spite of bad press surrounding a cronyism affair.

Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage. Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.

The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government. The State Government is composed of the:. In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie English: This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.

In the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs— referenda took place from through The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".

The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State". The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.

Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.

Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter. Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U. Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th in the world. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq. The state's population continues to decline [38].

Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language. Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.

As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females. Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum , or Maypole which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages , as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village , and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region.

There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions. They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive.

In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany.

They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers. Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i. According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down recently as incompatible with the European common market.

German breweries, however, cling to the principle, and Bavarian breweries still comply with it in order to distinguish their beer brands. Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle. The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.

Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken. In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German , mainly in the cities. Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal. In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.

In the United States, particularly among German Americans , Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan ; Helen, Georgia ; and Leavenworth, Washington.

Lovepoint wirklich eine ernste die nase voll von, portal normal schalten ihre private warme nicht schon hat bordellbesuch machen wollen. Und ganz, kannst die besuchbar ist machen. The Flashman Papers is a series of novels and short stories written by George MacDonald Fraser, the first of which was published in The books centre on the exploits of the fictional protagonist Harry art-stroj.com is a cowardly British soldier, rake and cad who is placed in a series of real historical incidents between and While the incidents and much of the detail in the novels. Bavaria (/ b ə ˈ v ɛər i ə /; German and Bavarian: Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: Freistaat Bayern [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn]), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern art-stroj.com an area of 70, square kilometres (27, sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area. Its territory comprises roughly a fifth.