Reply with here to help in the subject line or I will delete you. I wanted to meet you, but I never felt so hot and bothered in public before, just from seeking at you.
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Artemis is known as the goddess of Fertility when you Google it… This is nothing more than a mass sterilization,depopulation project. Follow this article to the end and you will agree. These things are fanless and have heat sinks that look like they can dissipate heat from a thousand watts of power.
The question is what are they going to do with a thousand watts of power. Here they are folks. Figure 1 Electromagnetic field application method for experimental animals.
So here we have an experimental study on exposing rats for 15 minutes a day for 15 days and counting the number of ovarian follicles that remain after irradiation. You know how tough rats are and yet the results are horrifying. What is this doing to our children? An exposure device with a special antenna placed on students zippers was used for generating the EMF 1 W peak output power and. The specific energy absorption rate SAR varied from. At the very least, you would think the government and industry would have gone to great lengths replicating animal experiments in the United States to determine if the classroom application of this technology is safe.
No such thing folks. No only school district sycophants, school boards that ignore the evidence and local media like the Fullerton Observer that withhold information presented at both elementary and high school board meetings that the public has a right to know while the children remain in harms way being aided and abetted by their very own parents that drive by our banners on the sidewalk and throw the fliers on their windshields in the trash.
What do wireless emissions do to human reproduction? Scientists tell us that it causes infertility. Possible flat earth connection with Apple as well? Its all in your face along with the sterilization agenda. Schematic of the Cupertino campus layout-pretty insightful if you ask me. Human egg in two-cell stage which shows the spermatozoa fertilization of the ovum. Eggs that undergo zona response from micrwowave radio frequencies pulsed against the belly think iPad Infertilty pad might only respond someday to fertilization in a lab with a needle.
This results in the eggs being hardened so no sperm can penetrate. Hardened eggs equal no pregnancy unless you can get you kids in vitro procedures out of your Obamacare policy. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum appears to be missing from the eerie diagram of Apples headquarters. This would render the eggs vulnerable to being penetrated by more than one sperm if it cannot induce Zona Hardening,.
The technology must be wireless- http: Other external interests and goals notwithstanding, we are in agreement that the AORTA Education Platform describes the first step toward enabling our vision for education in this century:. What is the goal? It is possible to shape the 5G radiation pattern and steer the beam from an antenna array by controlling the relative phases and magnitudes of the input signal.
This example shows how to design an active electronically scanned array AESA using arithmetic phase progression on each antenna element. What else has come out of apple and Microsoft? What does he bring us? What a bizarre coincidence. Where are the kept all the time?
It is a brilliant invention but could it be being used for nefarious purposes? There would be blue pcell dots everywhere. The flashes are actually made of zinc. The color of the weaponry deployed against humanity to thwart our God given reproductive rights. These are school district employees on school property on the clock acting out some bizarre ritual-. Why are there so many attempts in life by evil people to wreck what I hold so dearly and carefully for that magic moment?
Ipads emit more microwave radiation than cell phones. Cell phone use is voluntary among adults and most certainly not for hours per day in their laps. Ipads in school, well that is another story. Once the kids are addicted to them at home, well kiss the sunlight exposure and normal sleep patterns goodbye. As for their progeny someday, please revert back the mid section of this article. The antenna is right on his zipper, or for the girls, right on their ovaries emitting microwave radiation levels trillions of times background levels when the device is WiFi enabled.
What a convenient coincidence. Martin Pall presentation entitled, Microwave electromagnetic fields do not work by heating.
They produce health effects by VGCC activation. I wonder what one does with this information? I wonder what one does with the information in the article below this post? With the media blackout on the wireless agenda like nothing I have ever seen in my entire life, thank God that the traffic on this site continues to grow. Folks there are an awful lot of eyes on this debacle in our little neck of the woods. It is time to let you know that there is more to this story than what you are being spoon fed folks.
Here is your tax money at work and boy is there more to this than meets the eye. With the almost totally exclusive contracts in the schools. There is a reason for not including in vitro in my new health plan. Wireless microwave radiation forced exposure from the cradle to the grave for this generation.
It ought not be so. The microwave transmitters are in direct proximity to their reproductive organs. Not sleeping well these days? EASY DEASY, cuz kids are coming to your board meetings with teachers complaining about nosebleeds, insomnia, bleeding from their ears and all kinds of problems that your staff refuses to file incident reports on. They never got them? Why did you pull wireless of the shelf at the last board meeting? Petaluma superintendent Steve Bolman- children need to be irradiated as I call the cops on you.
Sheehan-We like you better with your glasses on. I always wondered why his office was all the way at the end of the hall. FSD Superintendent Robert Pletka drunk on wireless technology and high on common core-He could stop this if he wanted to. Fullertons very own Dr. Oh but she loves the veterans so much that she wants to give them a cemetery while they drop like flies at the VA. No pregnancy means no abortions which means no body parts and no dinero for your proud eugenicist monster sponsor that is a creation from the pit of hell.
Some people will do anything for money. Autism conference host where the solution is a room full of drug pushers and vaccine inventors while he and his cohorts totally ignore the wireless connection to the epidemic. No respect I tell ya. Well since you asked? Oh but he beats the war drum so loud you need noise cancelling headphones.
Huge cash donor to wireless classroom technology-silent on our attempts to reach him. Ignores emails and board meeting presentations on how dangerous these classrooms are for children. Ignores repeated emails about the wireless connection to Autism and to top it off his charity group donates money for wirelesss technology to the FSD and blocks me from Facebook. Ignores emails and board meeting presentations on how dangerous these classrooms are for children eventually resulting in me removing my eldest child from her school.
She just smiles at everything. She looks like my neighbor, pretty trippy. Ignores emails and board meeting presentations on how dangerous these classrooms are for children and continues to direct money into technology with the fundraising efforts district wide. She has also called the police on parents for handing out fliers on the sidewalk trying to warn parents of the dangers.
My other three children were subsequently removed from the school. Ignores everything we ever sent her and continues on the path of forced microwave exposure for the children on the west side. Is this the apple connection for the FSD?
Is this the husband of Fisler principal Trang Lai? Hey we can read. Fisler School a 1: Gail Lyons, who taught my kids Sunday school classes over at EV Free lent a deaf ear to my board meeting presentation, written materials and emails. The more things change, the more they remain the same. Not to mention the battle raging over the wireless in the schools that he is no stranger to. Ironically, as a matter of fact, after many failed attempts to reach him, with NO responses, this is what we get-.
Technical details of permanent failure: Google tried to deliver your message, but it was rejected by the server for the recipient domain evfreefullerton. He gets into the education business. Common core is being rolled out all over the USA and it is being delivered in a wireless environment.
Provide adequate bandwidth and Internet access to all schools, calculated on a per — student basis./p>
Once the alpha waves are brought down well below the norm, depression and suicidal thoughts kick in. So, when these kids start taking other drugs to combat their false sense of depression and negative thoughts, or, committing suicide, they blame it on the overdosing of drugs. Great coverup for their covert depopulation control agenda. I heard you on the radio tonight. Bravo for a most excellent presentation.
You have a gift and you arr using it for humanity. Well, I have learned that i can only sleep in a complete darkness, and every night I even cover the tiny blue lights that come on my laptop because it bothers me even with my eyes closed.
Thank u for sharing this info. Vitamin D is an awesome thing — the best source is Cod Liver Oil has vit A too , and u should also implement some vitamin K for better absorption spinach, kale etc. He is just diversionary. The real issue here is not the phone itself but rather the cell towers that have the ability to penetrate everything around us including our bodies.
I will be dealing with the local churches here in Fullerton as they are direct participants in destroying human health and wildlife as a result of their willful blindness, ignorance and pure greed. Almost every large church in Fullerton has a cell tower on their property. There is simply no excuse for their behavior considering what they have been exposed to in terms of information. These pastors that have refused to turn them off and continued to renew the leases after they have been put on notice that their actions are putting their neighbors in immediate harm will burn in hell for what they do.
This is a satanic agenda and they are willing participants. The most disgusting sight in Fullerton is a cross on top of a hidden cell tower on top of a church.
They are all over town. They are doing gods work, killing off the most destructive species on the planet with their cell towers and their religious wars. People are mindless, useless eaters not worthy of their offspring. The biggest lie is being taught truth to power in the schools. The population bomb will be no more. The injections, the injunctions and the food supply are all our mandate now. The masses are powerless slated for extinction. As usually very clear, unfortunately, this time Dr.
When he demonstrates how the measurements are done, by moving the phone away from his head, he still holds it in his hand, exposing for instance all white and red blood cells in the peripheral blood every 5th minute when they pass his hand. I did some very simple penetration studies: Friday, March 14, , I allowed pairs of rather stubby women to press their voluptuous bodies tightly around a mobile phone to see if I could call the phone, i. The result was clear; from a functionality point of view it was as if the bodies were not present at all, the women were completely transparent.
The telecom manufacturers and operators say that their products are safe, so they claim, but they do not — legally — themselves touch them even with a barge pole or a pair of pliers.
So, in a sense, these companies have their own precautionary principle, by completely and totally refuse liability for their own products. The employment of ferrite beads and hollow airtubes will not move the phone an inch away from your hand.
All of this is about the possibly? Ironically, the head and brain is actually more resistant against radiation damage as compared to other soft tissues, like the gonads. And the effect on the latter may be much more devastating than extra cancer cases.
They clearly show that the recorded exposure levels actually are 3 times higher than the allowed maximal ones, so the difference between the natural background and the actual phone signal pointed out by me may be even bigger. As you know, this revelation has created a huge scandal in France, with ramifications all the way up to their National Assembly and Senate, as well as up to the European Union. Similar figures are now starting to emerge from other countries and laboratories, something also touched upon by Dr.
Instead the safety of these gadgets are determined using so-called technical recommendations based on acute heating of fluid-filled plastic dolls, and only allowing you to make one! Does that make you feel safe? Given the highly artificial nature of the current wireless communication signals, e. This relationship we have also covered in a number of studies:. More and more people, all over the world, have over the years become concerned citizens who realise that modern electronic devices produce electromagnetic fields that are not native to our Earth.
It is now high time that Dr. Or was that not the intention…? Give-away rents for 5G cell towers. The children are 10 and 11 years old. Barry and Alfredo almost went to jail stopping the tower at Richmond park. No one is monitoring the power levels coming off of these towers so if you live near one, you should be mad as hell. Yes you heard me right, the city council has repeatedly voted to approve cell towers with no official contract before them that governs power level increase or collocation or anything else.
They let the city manager fill it out after its approved. They all belong in jail. Apple computer is percent Satanic Jew controlled to reduce populations and mind enslave populations to highly addictive screens and flicker rate manipulation. Microsoft is also percent Satanic Jew controlled Our government and world is being run by Satanic, Illuminati Zionists while the U. Cooling system failures were Israeli acts as their terrorists took down the reactors.
Virtually every newspaper or magazine is owned by Jews. Their self-serving propaganda constantly fills the TV screen. The Federal government is totally under Jewish control. US military forces are the pawn of Israel. The banks, the markets are theirs. They systematically denigrate our Founding Fathers and our heritage and our Constitution. Protestant Zionist con men in the pulpits, Rothschild Mafia fake Jews in the banking cartel.
Jesuits and the Vatican and the English Royals who steal children and babies and drain their blood and slay them for Baal-Lucifer-Satan. Pedophiles who started every war. We want to take back our humanity. Our USA financial system is corrupt and we sit back while all this goes on all around us. Lawmakers are set to consider bills HB , SB that would require the state Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to establish guidelines on how much these devices are used in classrooms.
Separately, the Maryland State Advisory Council has put out a report calling for a reduction in the use of WiFi in schools. She says radiation is a real threat to children, and urges caution, noting decades ago asbestos was considered a great flame retardant.
The Senate is expected this week to hear the legislation to establish guidelines about digital devices in school. Overuse has been associated with headaches, blurred vision, retinal damage, myopia, sleeplessness, obesity, anxiety and addiction.
Theodora Scarato, director of public affairs and educational resources with the Environmental Health Trust, started doing research on WiFi exposure several years ago. This is hell on earth for children and their posterity. Again, another Satanic sacrifice involving our children.
Be prepared to read and listen, since this is densely packed with relevant information about our situation and the harm to us and our children that these psychos have planned.
This article shows just how bad, broad, and pervasive this intentional harming of our children really is. I am appalled at what I am seeing here. How can these experts that know better, promote the continued harming of children in our schools by making them wireless? Are they taking money from the fascist corporations doing this? Are they part of the Satanic coven that has pervaded our military, our child protective services, and now our schools, put under federal control??? But, its bigger than just the issue of wireless, this is about depopulation.
Children of all people; how can they do this to children who are guilty only of being pure beings that we manage to somehow ruin if they do not stay pure as they were as children? This is about Depopulation, no doubt about it and the dumbing down of the rest who remain in order to make them into unresisting slaves. What he shows and discusses about Bill Gates, I can confirm through numerous blogs we have done on the damage Gates and his wife have done both nationally and interntionally, to the point where India intends to indict him if he should ever set foot again, in their country.
He has harmed many Indian children with his bogus depopulation vaccines, and they are mad as hell about it. Nuremberg type trials are now being called for and prosecutions need to occur, if the UN ever expects to have any legitimacy.
I continue to be amazed at the insanity that these people, placed in serious positions of authority and influence, continue to exhibit. Its time to show and expose these people for what they truly are. Child destroyers and not child educators.. In fact, Righteous anger is the only option we now have if we want to stop all this cold.
This kind of evil is what has assured me there is a God and He is our only protection against such intentional and directed evil as these people are showing and promoting.
As you read about them below, you will see the satanism that is also obvious by many. You read and listen to the first video and get the scoop from a professor big wig at a University I used to attend. This applies not only to wireless, but also to smart meters which are also based on ELM. Putting these wireless systems in the schools is what will harm the children….
If they put these in, then that is what should happen to those who make the decision to harm these kids. You read, listen and decide. Not anymore, since the system is now too far along in the corruption category to do the job needed. This author, while yelling with caps, has actually done a superb job of listing all the other harmful objects within the class room even before they do the wireless. If you have kids today, Home schooling is becoming the only option.
I am seeing more and more of it here and its working, in fact, home schooled children are being accepted by colleges in greater numbers than those publically schooled, for a mulitude of reasons. These schools could hard wire these classes and do no, to little, damage, so why is this even an issue?
If, instead you are into depopulation and satanism, as Gates is, then I guess its understandable. The internet is completely accessible via wired connections. If the government would acknowledge the dangers and risks from so much exposure to EMF radiation, they could take steps to reduce the exposure levels to the public. This issue I predict will be like cigarettes, unfortunately. A decade or two from now, the government will admit the harm caused by this and take significant steps to eradicate the health dangers.
Its not about me, never has been, never will be, Its about the children and their pathetic parents. Argue with these people listed here. Contact info is attached as well for all plus of them. Schoolchildren are our hope for the future. But what kind of future will be left, once the pervasive attack on our education system has rendered it a perversion of actual truth?
The activists of society will be driven underground to educate the media-brainwashed youth: No, dear children, Christopher Columbus did not discover America, Yes, George Custer was a coward and he conspired to murder the native men, women and children that belonged to this land; No, he is not a hero just because Fort Custer in Michigan still bears his name. It may be even harder to convince them that higher education was once a breeding ground for lively exchange of ideas; we were free to speak our minds and write without fear of retribution for expressing our beliefs ; we had an operational Constitution for these United States and had legal remedy for violations of our First, Fourth and Fifth and other Amendments.
And once upon a time we waited until we got home to communicate on the phone instead of just talking to ourselves, since there really is someone always listening and, yes, we had privacy in our homes and cars. Classrooms are not the only targets; the poor, the disabled, and us older folks that were around during the Regan Era, must become the backroom professors so we must go, too.
See, history does repeat itself: When you allow corporations and mafia families to dictate the terms of your lives, you will eventually pay with the death of your entire populace. The United Nations has openly discussed the culling of humanity over and over since This is famously detailed within the UN Agenda 21 documents. Read the actual documents. This is hardly something to celebrate with your portfolio holdings.
ALL pulsed digital technology is genotoxic, period. All high frequency pulsed RF emissions are documented to negatively affect autoimmune functions, period.
Pulsed microwave energy causes calcium ion leakage across cell membranes, heat-shock protein activations, behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, permanent neurological damage, reduction of sperm count in males, single and double strand breaks in DNA, and the list goes on and on.
None of this has been a secret for over 60 years. Your corporations are running extermination programs for profit. Excellent information…you are about only site that talks about this issue of Sterilization and Low Sperm Counts…. Please notice how the White European Race world wide is below zero poplulation growth….. Maybe Elite want just one type fertile.. This makes too much sense if you understand the grandiose plans of the elite. It is the perfect crime with so many people unknowingly involved.
Well for Fullerton, I think everyone who is involved has nowhere to hide with people like Joe Imbriano running for office. After Apple computer company sterilizes all your children at school with the iPads infertility pads and with your tax money they then take your tax money and they send it hiding overseas to avoid taxes. Are all you parents still donating money and fundraising so your children can be harmed with wireless devices and so the taxpayers can be ripped off to pay for it all?
Apple has more than 90 percent of its money located outside of the U. Easy to occupy small kids time and keep them behaving when they are contempt with those gadgets at all times.
I know you hate reality though. Most people are far too stupid to deal with anything other than a beer, bong and a bimbo. Kids are just a pain in the ass by product of a good night gone bad and the schools are just a dumping ground for the mornings after. No one gives a fuck so give it up. They are so fucking stupid anyways.
We are over populated so why make things worse. Let this wireless shit roll and crank it up. Its already everywhere anyway. We are not over populated. Everyone is just crammed into the cities. Get in an airplane and look out the cotton picken window. This is very scary stuff. Not sure if I grasp it all but putting it out there nonetheless. The English noun troll in the standard sense of ugly dwarf or giant dates to and comes from the Old Norse word troll meaning giant or demon.
Every last one of these people should be publicly held responsible for what they are intentionally doing to the children. These are crimes against humanity. Yes, and we should start right here with the FSD trustees: There is no way these deniers even deserve for their progeny to reproduce,thus the reason they have been destined for infertility.
Their genome is unfit to carry humanity forward. You need to stop casting your pearls to pigs. They are too stupid to see past the talking heads in media and their own selfish needs and wants. All those who can, but refuse to act have left is to keep labeling you as a conspiracy theorist. This gives them the convenient out they need to ignore and avoid taking action.
You are going to have a very difficult time trying to undo the programming of the brains of all these the lost causes. You are dealing with very evil people at the highest levels, very stupid people at the lowest and worst of all, extremely selfish cowards in the middle. I just would advise you to continue to make provision for your own family as you have so wisely done.
I commend you for your steadfast commitment to truth in spite of the efforts to the contrary by those who are determined to inflict irreparable harm to children. Your research has opened the door for many of us to escape and protect our families. You have changed my life and those of countless others who have listened to your beckoning to pay heed to these dire warnings. This is a dark day in human history with the minds of the masses subjugated to such depths and yet, as you know, this is just the tip of the iceberg.
I agree, Joe and every one of us that understand what is going on, need to make sure that we and our families are taken care of. I have come to the conclusion a while ago, that most are unreachable dumbed down. The best we can do is to find a safe haven in which to live. Now Bill Gates is up to his eyeballs in forcing children to be injected with sterilizing vaccines and be forcibly subjected to sterilizing wireless microwave radiation in schools with the common core.
Folks open your eyes. Membrane electrophysiology and surface ion channels Download link: I have to agree with the author of this very long drawn out connect the dots. He nailed the whole damn thing. My children are grown and their children are in these classrooms.
I guess old grandpa is living up to his eccentric reputation with the grandkids. I can only hope people will listen. Never in all my years did I ever expect to live to see such brazen disregard for children as I am seeing today. I appreciate this article as well as totally agree with the statements for this article. I continue to pray. For truly Satan is at work behind all this technology. Its so very saddening. So many being deceived. Thank you for the research. It would logically follow that any society that would murder its unborn, aged, and now the depressed and infirmed would stop at nothing to lower the bar even further and hence, the here and now.
The information presented here should serves as a dire warning to awaken. This information was never intended to be made public. The occult is always hiding and burying things where only they alone can find and understand them.
This information should be heeded before irreparable harm is done to all of your children. May his heroic efforts not be in vain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Epub Apr Recombinant human ZP3-induced sperm acrosome reaction: Author information Abstract For successful fertilization mammalian spermatozoa must undergo the acrosome reaction AR , an exocytotic event that allows this cell to penetrate the outer layer of the oocyte, the zona pellucida ZP. The situation in human sperm is even less clear due to the limited availability of human ZP.
Consistent with this, we detected in human sperm transcripts for the Ca V 1 auxiliary subunits, alpha 2 delta, beta 1 , beta 2 and beta 4 , but not the neuronal specific isoforms beta 3 and gamma 2.
Copyright c Elsevier Inc. These include the following:. There are 26 different studies showing that calcium channel blockers, agents specific for blocking the VGCCs, block or greatly lower all effects of EMF exposure that were measured in each study. These include 5 classes of calcium channel blockers, with each acting of different sites and having different structural properties.
Each of these are thought to be highly specific agents and we have, therefore, no alternative interpretation to these results — the EMFs are activating the VGCCs. The VGCCs and other voltage-gated ion channels have voltage sensors located in the plasma membranes of cells, which based in their location and structural properties, are predicted based on the physics to be exquisitely sensitive to activation by these EMFs.
There is published evidence that pulsed microwave exposures produce an almost instantaneous increase in intracellular calcium levels, strongly supporting a direct activation of the VGCCs by these EMFs, as suggested in the previous paragraph. The VGCCs have been shown to have a universal or near-universal role in converting electrical effects into chemical changes in cells, so it should not be surprising that there appears to be a universal or near-universal role of the VGCCs in producing biological responses to EMFs.
There are a wide range of repeatedly reported responses to microwave EMF exposures that can be explained as being caused by downstream effects of VGCC activation and consequent increases in intracellular calcium, including: Oxidative stress, single strand and double strand breaks in cellular DNA, other genotoxic responses including increases in 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxoguanine, cancer, cardiac effects including tachycardia, bradycardia, arrhythmia, possibly leading to sudden cardiac death, widespread neuropsychiatric effects, male and female infertility and low levels of melatonin.
Many of these effects have been shown to be produced by excessive activity of the VGCCs in humans, based on genetic studies. Microwave EMFs act in plants act very similarly to the way they act in animals, activating voltage regulated calcium channels and producing large increases in calcium signaling responses.
The plant responses are also blocked by calcium channel blockers, including some the same blockers that work in animals. The plant calcium channels have voltage sensors with similar properties to the VGCCs in animals, thus providing an explanation for the exquisite sensitivity of the plant channels to these fields.
It should be obvious, that the calcium channel blocker studies provide the key piece of evidence pointing directly to the VGCCs and plant channels as the targets of these fields, but the other types of evidence provide powerful and extensive support for this conclusion from various types of diverse evidence. Science is and always has been a matter of evidence, preferably evidence that examine a theory from a variety of different perspectives, such that it can be tested not just from one perspective, but from many……..
Most of the effects of pulse modulated microwave RF exposure reported have been on the L-form of calcium channels. Exposure to a MHz electromagnetic field for one hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis.
Int J Radiat Biol. This study investigated the effect of exposure to a megahertz MHz electromagnetic field EMF on the rat testicle. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into control, sham and EMF groups. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione levels and apoptotic index and histopathological damage scores were compared.
Histopathologically, EMF group rats exhibited vacuoles in seminiferous tubules basal membrane and edema in the intertubular space. Seminiferous tubule diameters and germinal epithelium thickness were both smaller, and apoptotic index was higher, in the EMF group than in the other groups. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione values in the EMF group decreased significantly compared to those of the control group.
The results show that exposure to MHz EMF causes alterations in adult rat testicular morphology and biochemistry. The figures with rats inside the jar were 4.
The whole-body specific absorption rate SAR was calculated at 0. Several studies have reported that EMF leads to interruption of spermatogenesis, impairment of sperm quality, degeneration of germinal epithelium cells, impaired testosterone levels, infertility, premature birth in rats and a decrease in testicular biopsy scores Li et al.
In contrast, however, other studies have reported that EMF has no effect on male fertility or else that the effect of EMF depends on intensity, length of exposure, wavelength and distance from EMF Margonato et al. Exposure to MHz caused some damage in the testicular seminiferous tubule in this study.
Analysis revealed irregularities, vacuoles and occasional dehiscence in the seminiferous tubular epithelium of the EMFG and germinal epithelial cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. These findings suggest that the spermatogenic cycle in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubule was compromised in the EMFG. Previous studies on the subject have reported that injury occurring in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubule may compromise the spermatogenic cycle Al-Damegh On the basis of all these studies and our own findings we think that long-term exposure to EMF causes pathological changes in testicular tissue and that these may have irreversible consequences.
That was because GSM, one of the cellular communications systems widely used in Europe, has an operating frequency of MHz. We used a fixed EMF frequency in this study, the purpose of which was to investigate the effect on the rat testis of exposure to MHz EMF for 1 hour a day over 30 days.
In conclusion, exposure of adult rats to MHz EMF for 1 hour a day over 30 days led to injury in testicular tissues and compromised testicular morphology and biochemical markers. MicroRNAs miRNAs play paramount role in growth, differentiation, proliferation and cell death by suppressing one or more target genes. However, their interaction with radiofrequencies is still unknown.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long term effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a Wireless Fidelity Wi-Fi system on some of the miRNAs in brain tissue. The study was carried out on sixteen Wistar Albino adult male rats by dividing them into two groups such as sham n: Rats in the exposure group were exposed to 2.
The same procedure was applied to the rats in the sham group except the Wi-Fi system was turned off. Immediately after the last exposure, rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed. The results revealed that long term exposure of 2. We observed that mir expression is 3. However, miRp, miRa-3p and miRa-3p levels in brain were not altered. Long term exposure of 2. Bob Pletka is stuck in a horrible place. The common core is turning out to be a total disaster. The technology is right up there right behind it too.
The kids are really suffering. In terms of their health, just watch a little league game. All around, this is a complete tragedy. I can only imagine what it must be like to be inside your head. By August of , Princeton had pulled down all information related to wireless radiation. I would hope Princeton now gives this issue the due diligence it deserves.
Why is Wifi being rolled out when so many scientists are calling for caution around the world? In February , Scarato first wrote a letter to the Director of Environmental Health and Safety at Princeton University asking that Princeton update the information on wireless. She followed up with several letters and phone calls. By August , Princeton had removed the wireless information. NAIS serves over 1, schools.
Does Princeton realize just how many schools were relying on their site? How could I, as a mother, just ignore the research showing brain damage at levels thousands of times below our governments regulations? It might take decades to prove -just like asbestos did, but what about the years my children will have been exposed? To read the letters please see http: State of the reproductive system in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation MHz during embryogenesis and postnatal development.
It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males.
It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability. It has been found that prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation resulted in a decrease in animal births 64 vs 86 in the control ; a change in sex ratio towards increasing the number of males; a significant impact on the reproductive system of males by accelerating their sexual development seen at 2 months of age.
This exposure led to a significant disproportion in the process of spermatogenesis: The data indicate substantial disturbances in the reproductive system of male rats caused by prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from a cell phone. Parents saw that it was outdated, containing old research and inaccurate.
A Parent wrote a letter to the Director of Environmental Health and Safety at Princeton University asking that Princeton take down the outdated and inaccurate information. The letter was substantive and provided strong scientific evidence. February to June Princeton took down the site by August Thank you Princeton University! Please read some of the email exchanges between parents and Princeton Here. Bill Gates, Monsanto, and eugenics: Huff, staff writer Tags: Bill Gates, Monsanto, eugenics.
Arizona doctor under investigation for not conforming Go organic with these 25 homemade coffee creamer recipes Natural herbs to improve hormonal regulation during menopause 35 things the media reported as FACTS that were later found to be total lies Wakefield is not a fraud — His study linking MMR vaccine to autism vindicated These simple steps will help you prepare for any emergency is here: Samsung admits its TVs might spy on you, warns against carrying out sensitive conversations Every central bank in the world now bankrupt; financial guru warns of coming chaos Three simple things shown to help heal cancer Health Ranger unveils Food Rising Mini-Farm Grow Box grow system in new video Vaccine horrors: The Gates Foundation, aka the tax-exempt Gates Family Trust, is currently in the process of spending billions of dollars in the name of humanitarianism to establish a global food monopoly dominated by genetically-modified GM crops and seeds.
Vaccines, pharmaceuticals, GMOs, reproductive control, weather manipulation, global warming — these and many other points of entry are the means by which the Gates Foundation is making great strides to control the world by pretending to help improve and save it.
Rather than promote real food sovereignty and address the underlying political and economic issues that breed poverty, Gates and Co. It is abundantly evident that GMOs have ravished already-impoverished people groups by destroying their native agricultural systems, as has been seen in India http: Perhaps it is a combination of both, where Gates is still in the business of promoting his own commercial investments, which includes buying shares in Monsanto while simultaneously investing in programs to promote Monsanto.
Whatever the case may be, there is simply no denying that Gates now has a direct interest in seeing Monsanto succeed in spreading GMOs around the world. It works as a Trojan horse to deprive poor African farmers of their traditional seeds, replacing them with the seeds of their companies first, finally by genetically modified GM. In July , I began researching some of the topics presented on this site, almost full time.
My reward has been great. There is a prevailing evil blown in from the Northwind, and landed in our lovely town of Fullerton. My fuel line was suspiciously separated and my alarm system has been trashed. All forms of communication are blocked, and my mail has at least twice been rerouted. I am trying to find a typewriter to at least keep writing; I know that is the only thing that can keep me sane. Writing and music are my Prozac and both have been cut off from me in my own home and car.
The election chilled me because all the money allocated for the school district is guaranteed to grow those fears of our future. What kind of world will my grandchildren have left? I fear that the Wireless issue is a red herring — the real agenda is far worse than any I imagined. Keep up the good work! Children for human sacrifice rescued; Mafia arrested; Assassination attempts on Whistleblower Uncategorized Add comments Nov The Ninth Circle was said to be populated by Popes and Vatican officials, British, Dutch and Belgian monarchies, prominent politicians, government officials and global businessmen such as those of theCargill Corporation.
These global elites of the Ninth Circle Child Sacrifice Cult were believed to pay big bucks for the Vatican and Ndrangheta mafia to supply children for their monthly child sacrifices. The Brussels International Court has spent the last 4 years investigating and prosecuting Vatican-led members of the Ninth Circle, but not without cost. The brake lines of my car were cut, causing a serious accident.
Then I was physically assaulted on September 20 while traveling in the US. I have recovered and am presently under protection. We identified these criminals to the police as well as the addresses where they were being sent, including in Zwolle, Holland and a suburb of Brussels. From what other eyewitnesses reported to the ICLCJ Court, Ninth Circle members appear to be very influential and able to get away with doing child sacrifices across the globe.
According to mob wife Anne Marie van Blijenburgh, her husband Kees van Korlaar along with his three brothers, formed the criminal organization that ran with the Vatican, a child exploitation syndicate. The child rape, torture and murder was thought to be funded by European royalty, celebrities, politicians, businessmen and other global elite seeking feelings of power through Satanic worship.
I have been taken to their ceremonies three times and seen a child killed each time. Thanks to Catholic pressure, the Ninth Circle affiliated strongly with Nazi cultic groups that had close ties with the Waffen S.
Months ago the ICLCJ Court was notified of Ndrangheta hit orders on their 6 international judges, 28 jury members and other court officials including Annett. They surmised the death threats had roots in their July 19 conviction of Pope Francis for criminal conspiracy, obstructing justice, plus aiding and abetting child trafficking while acting as an Argentine priest and bishop.
Earlier this year two adolescent women testified that Pope Francis raped them while participating in child sacrifices. According to a sealed document obtained for Court from the Vatican archives, Pope Francis was a perpetrator in satanic child sacrifice rites while acting as an Argentine priest and bishop. According to the witness, Pope Francis helped traffic 30, children of missing political prisoners into an international child exploitation ring run by an office at the Vatican.
Some of those children were suspected to rest in a Catholic-owned child mass grave site in Spain. Threats to whistle blowers who testified before the Court have increased as over 60 eyewitnesses to child torture and murder have come forward naming their childhood perpeptrators as members of the global elite Ninth Circle Satanic Child Sacrifice Cult.
A special office at the Vatican supplied children for the global elite Ninth Circle child trafficking according to former employees of the Vatican Curia who filed affidavits in the ICLCJ Court last year. The missing Court investigator brought a total of 14 witnesses who, prior to their testimony before the ICLCJ Court, were killed, died of mysterious causes, or were incarcerated in a jail cell or mental institution without being charged with a crime.
That included Annett being held overnight in a London jail without charges, then deported. Annett was seeking justice for the genocide of 50, missing Canadian tribal children.
Over 32 unmarked child mass gravesites were located on mainly Catholic-owned residential school grounds — that since have been refused excavation by the Canadian Government, Catholic Church and English Crown. Queen Elizabeth was found guilty in the disappearance of ten children from the Catholic Kamloops residential school in British Columbia. Several eyewitnesses who had undergone Ninth Circle ritual abuse throughout their childhood, named Pope Joseph Ratzinger at child sacrifices.
Ratzinger turned in his resignation from office a few days after his Feb. Eight eyewitnesses claimed being present at child rapes and sacrifices by global elite members of the Ninth Circle. The most recent murder rites were said to take place during the Springs of and in rural Holland and Belgium.
Oh yeah and next we will hear about the Vatican and flying saucers. Children from Christchurch school explain ritual abuse https: Mowhawk Indian Children Canada https: Continue reading the main story The number of women in the United States who gave birth dropped last year, according to federal statistics released Thursday, extending the decline for a sixth year.
According to the report, the general fertility rate in the United States — the average number of babies women from 15 to 44 bear over their lifetime — dropped to a record low last year, to 1. For every 1, women ages 15 to 44, there were The decline is especially notable because the number of women in their prime childbearing years, 20 to 39, has been growing since Cherlin, a family demographer at Johns Hopkins University. And even at 1. Frey, a demographer at the Brookings Institution in Washington, also related the fertility rates to the economy.
In large part, the statistics reflect a broad shift, with more women delaying pregnancy, often past their prime childbearing years. So while the teenage birthrate has dropped substantially, and the birthrate for women in their 20s has been declining as well, births to older women are on the rise. Twin births are increasingly common, now representing about one in every 30 babies born in the United States.
And preterm births and cesarean-section deliveries are declining, the report found. White women, who once had the highest rates of cesarean deliveries, now have the lowest rate, and the largest decline, while black women have the highest. Hispanic women, who formerly had the lowest rate, now have slightly more C-sections than white women. The data from the National Center for Health Statistics, which is part of the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, came from birth certificates.
GSMA, February 16, Wireless industry groups have come together to publish an updated brochure that answers specific questions about Wi-Fi health and safety, in response to community concerns. After 60 years of extensive study, no adverse health effects have been found from RF EMF at levels within the safety limits.
This large body of scientific research is regularly reviewed by numerous independent, scientific expert panels, government agencies, standard-setting organizations and health authorities from around the world. Responding to whether Wi-Fi is safe to use in schools and around children the brochure refers to the position of Health Canada, which is also consistent with other international bodies such as the WHO and Public Health England.
Other questions such as; who develops the limits for exposure to radio waves, are W-Fi devices in compliance with the RF exposure requirements, and what is the wireless industry doing to ensure the continued safety of Wi-Fi products, are also answered in the brochure. We have some great news to celebrate and some challenges ahead.
As always, let me say thank you so much for your partnership in time, energy and finances in this wonderful church. Good News was a record year for donations to our General Fund. These numbers represent eight months of our actual donations in these various years.
Thank you so much for your regular and faithful giving! Challenges Ahead From May to December of , giving was at a record level. Yet, we had set a budget that was higher.
Further, there was a significant decline in giving in the latter part of December and in early January:. Be assured, we only spend up to our income. We will not spend more than what we have received. Let me also share some of the ways that we review our finances: Further, our Trustees quarterly review accounts that are over or under budget. We will continue to carefully monitor our income and expenses each week and keep you up-to-date. Please join with us in praying that God would give us much wisdom about this situation.
In the next few days, our staff will discuss how we can cut expenses. Why are you attacking the church? They do so much good in this community. They have really brought people together after all that we have gone through. You ought to be ashamed of yourselves. What kid is any match for this for the next 18 years of 6 hours a day of this crap. I guess the sound system is super cool and the light show is getting better while the pickpocket preacher makes fun of all this and the country goes to hell in a handbasket while they sing their hearts out.
Between the church emasculating, and neutering the congregants, and the schools educating the civic mindedness right out of the kids, I would say Christians better get ready for some real hard times ahead when they will finally realize that they have been robbed blind and their children have been blinded by the robbers.
In , doctors diagnosed her with cancer. Nearly a dozen of her coworkers heard the same news. The district says it did by calling in Dr. Morgan reported this to the district and to the teachers, disputing the number of cancer cases at the school.
Eleven teachers said they had cancer, but Morgan said he could only find five of them in the registry. Teachers living with the disease at the time expressed shock. Sam Milham volunteered to investigate the cancers at no charge to the district.
Milham lives part-time in the valley and specializes in public health and the occupational cancer risks of electricity. The district, Milham said, rebuffed him. Dirty electricity occurs when an interruption in electrical current flow emits bursts of radiofrequency radiation. Dirty power can be measured using a Graham-Stetzer meter, which plugs into any outlet.
While most homes and buildings measure under units, Milham says La Quinta Middle School measured off the charts. Milham and Lloyd Morgan believe the teachers developed cancer through prolonged exposure to dirty electricity at the school.
When Milham reported his findings to then-superintendent Dr. Using the same Graham-Stetzer meter, Dr. He referenced the reading in letters to the district in A total 18 cancers were found in 16 teachers but only 6. The CCR is the same agency Dr. John Morgan works for.
His argument is that the study used statewide rather than regional data, which he believes underestimated the number of cancers expected. John Morgan says he found only 12 teachers with cancer in the registry in Lloyd Morgan says if they had used Region 5 data which includes Riverside County , the number of expected cancers would have been even lower than 6. Meaning even fewer teachers should have been diagnosed. Milham says his list came directly from the teachers and their room assignments.
In letters to the district, Dr. But taking a closer look at multiple letters from Dr. Neutra to the district reveals he prescribed further investigation: Between April and May , Neutra wrote: They say they still wonder if the district did everything it could to rule out the possibility there was something making them sick at the school.
One former student is Natalie Piccola, who in her twenties, developed a rare tumor on her spleen, followed by nonmelanoma skin cancer. It turns out Piccola had both Gayle Cohen and Linda Brown as teachers, and sat in both of their classrooms, where Milham found high levels of dirty electricity. All three were diagnosed around the same time. In Europe and Australia, there are international policies limiting exposure to radiofrequency radiation, which Milham says dirty electricity emits.
Milham says one solution is for the school to put Graham-Stetzer filters in the classrooms. Just plugging them into an outlet cuts levels of dirty electriciy ten-fold. The district, he said, complained to his department about this recommendation. He suspects it might originate from a defective utility substation about a mile from the school.
If you worked at or attended La Quinta Middle School and were diagnosed with a tumor or cancer, contact Ellen Marks at cabtasf hotmail. By these practices and enticements the ancient dictators so successfully lulled their subjects under the yoke, that the stupefied peoples, fascinated by the pastimes and vain pleasures flashed before their eyes, learned subservience as naively, but not so creditably, as little children learn to read by looking at bright picture books.
How Do Tyrants Secure Cooperation? Here is a study on cell phone exposure to rats-not likely that these rats had the cell phone on their ovaries like the kids in the FSD and when they are home doing their homework. This is so criminal. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue. Arch Ital Urol Androl. Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves EMW on rat testes.
Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group.
For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4. Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost.
The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention. There is simply no reason for those designs to be incorporated into their architecture. This is purely the work of the devil. What I need most is your continued prayers in Jesus name. This is the most horrific conspiracy in human history since the fall of man. It is going to affect every last man, woman and child on this planet.
The dream of those who serve the powers of darkness has befallen our children. Never before has it been possible to implement the wholesale sterilization of our children. The technology has indeed arrived. It is being done right in the laps of our children with their own parents directly involved.
May God help us before it is too late. Imbriano is a modern day iconoclast in the strictest sense of the word. The unorthodox perspectives he delivers with his scathing style is, in my opinion, nothing short of remarkable. I have watched his various presentations online at meetings and have read his writings at great length. This issue can be ignored no more. I doubt that there are many of you out there that truly know what to make of him and that is understandable.
I must admit, at first glance, I thought he was off his rocker too. There was a part of me that simply wished to remain in denial. It is simply human nature to seek comfort and the path of least resistance. Because he goes where no one dares to go, evoking emotions of horror, anger, contempt, disgust and yes, even guilt, he attacks the very conscience of us all. With his take no prisoners approach, he is extremely difficult to contend with.
Perhaps the best known example can be found in his attacking the very churches that exist in his own city. Yet he does this as a professing Christian by his own admission. While many would argue that he is nothing more than a paranoid, fear mongering bully, I would argue that he has figured it all out while silently, some of you even admit that he is absolutely correct in his horrifying assertions.
His wisdom has allowed me to help myself and others to see and understand things that are not meant to be understood, discovered, discussed, or much less exposed. I am extremely grateful for that. He has enabled me to completely change my entire world view.
If and when we are ever, as a people, going to climb out of this mess that we are in, it will never happen with just one or two true iconoclasts leading the charge. The institutions all around are all corrupt to the core.
Their walls are too thick to be brought down with just one or two trumpets. Perhaps the one emotion that he evokes will finally eat us all alive to the point of reacting, that is the guilt, the guilt that truly plagues us all. I think the biggest mystery of all here is that there really is no mystery at all any more if we would just all simply open our eyes and look at what is really being done to our children by all of us. Local Republic of Kanata groups declare sovereignty, nullify crown authority Posted on January 19, Kanata Logo-2 Posted in these local communities on January , The public educates the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation about how their policies impact their lives.
A child that had the same xbox in his bed room was suffering from bad headaches and this was the only way to turn it off and stop the headaches. Exposure to wifi all day at school likely also had something to do with it. I did not have an understanding that cutting the wifi antenna would get rid of the wifi. Instead, I bought EMF shielding material which encases the xbox.
At the same time, I told my son that if he ever forgets to unplug the unit after playing, the Xbox is going in the trash. New World Order Ten Commandments 1. Maintain humanity under ,, in perpetual balance with nature. Guide reproduction wisely — improving fitness and diversity. Unite humanity with a living new language.
Rule passion — faith — tradition — and all things with tempered wisdom. Protect people and nations with fair laws and just courts. Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court. Avoid petty laws and useless officials. Balance personal rights with social duties. Prize truth — beauty — love — seeking harmony with the infinite. Be not a cancer on the earth — leave room for nature.
What do you call someone who continually throws out insults about this site while complaining that the postings are too long………. The only things getting smoked in this town are the livers of the young people downtown every night at the hands of the liquor peddlers, and the reproductive futures of these kids during the day at school in the wireless classrooms at the hands of the school district and college district lackeys.
Imbriano, Merry Christmas to you and yours and thank you for all that you and your group is doing for the children all over the world. At first glance, I was concerned by how you had dissed all of these people in your article. The title alone seemed ominous enough so I just had to look further. I just had to. Let me state what to me is obvious. I feel their message is loud and clear, and their ultimate responsiblity is to the planet and the environment. That theme is repeated over and over in their public relations materials.
They want to eliminate reproductive rights and control them. What else could be the reason? It is only because the consequences of accepting what is going on are to burdensome to bear.
What do we do for that? This blog post needs to be way longer with a lot more photos and graphics. It took only 15 minutes to scroll to the bottom of the post in order to leave this comment. Yeah screw these kids.
I need that 15 minutes for checking my hookup apps and the ball game tonight. There is no question that fertility is an integral theme of the architecture of the spaceship in Cupertino. The real question is whether the plausible deniability aspect will be overcome. Songbirds also have a FoxP2 gene. And when Erich inserted the same mutation into them, they too had trouble.
Then the birds can't imitate properly, just like in humans. Even though we're separated by million years from a common ancestor, a gene became used for a similar purpose in humans and vocal learning in birds. Turns out all animals have a FoxP2 gene, but it was assumed that it only affected communication in vocal learners.
But if this were true, why would all animals have the gene? Erich wondered if its effect on communication could be more profound. So, he decided to try the same experiment in a species that doesn't learn its vocalizations, mice. They don't just squeak…. When pitched down to the human hearing range, actually sound like songbird songs. Usually, when you put a female with a male he produces these complex, very modulated syllables.
We call them the sexy songs. Our assumption was that mice are vocal non-learners, so putting this human mutation that causes a speech deficit shouldn't do anything to their vocal behavior. If the FoxP2 mutation does affect mice, that would mean the roots of human language spread well beyond a handful of vocal learners. So above the cage here is a microphone that detects in the ultrasonic range.
To find out, you need to take twin mice like these, identical in every way except the mutation. First, the normal mouse…. I'm going to go ahead and put him in a cage now, and see how he responds to this female. And I'm going to expect, since he doesn't have the mutation, that he's going to produce more complex songs to her. So, here we go. That's a complex syllable type. So, like, we have these pitch jumps here, from here to here, here to here, and then these long syllables like these, followed by short ones.
This is what a normal animal should be singing. Now, for his brother, the mouse carrying the same mutant version of the gene that affects speech in humans and songbirds. Okay, so, now I'm going to take his brother, who has the FoxP2 mutation, and I'm going to put him in the cage.
So, our question is will his mutation affect his ability to produce song, and if so, how? Here he goes, here he goes. These are more simple syllables. Simple, here you go. So, this guy, he's behaving normally, but he doesn't seem to want to produce these more complex sequences, as we've seen in his brother.
So, what you see here are sonograms of the sounds that these mice are producing, and what kind of almost looks obvious here, this is the complex song that the wild type mice sing to the female. You take the FoxP2 mice with the mutation, instead of doing this, they do this. The simple song, where they have these simple syllables, not the same as what you're seeing in the wild type mice. So, I'm actually even struck more about the stark contrast that I'm seeing in these two brothers, one that doesn't have the mutation and one that does.
Everything else about them is the same. What it means, according to Erich, is that the roots of human language run deeper than we previously thought.
Even in a species that's born knowing its vocal repertoire, FoxP2 appears to affect the ability to make complex sounds. And it suggests that it's not a black or white world of the haves and the have-nots; it's a continuum. And it brings us closer to these other animals, in our abilities, in our cognition, in our speech. I'm not saying we're the same. Mice and humans aren't the same; we're more advanced.
But we are closer than what people realize. Language is like the last barrier that we seem to hold as being truly unique. So, we really sort of have to change our way of thinking about what I would call a continuum between other animals and humans.
If we only think about human language, and we're only focusing on what might be shared between human language and communication in other species, we could be missing so much of what other species do. I think we've discovered enough and had enough surprises to be absolutely sure that we've just scratched the surface, and that there is this amazingly complex and wonderful world to explore, which should keep generations of biologists and psychologists busy into the future.
This program was produced by WGBH, which is solely responsible for its content. Experts featured in this film may have received support from funders of this program.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Discover how a world of microbes living in and on you can make you sick-and keep you healthy. Many are crucial to your survival. It took 45 minutes for the larva to come out of my skin. It proved that the microbes were playing an active role in shaping our body. We're talking about the tiny creatures that live all over and inside of us…. They're so tiny, you can't see them, but there are more of them in and on your body than there are stars in the galaxy. Altogether, each of us are carrying around about three pounds worth.
That's about the same size as your brain. Today, scientists are exploring this invisible zoo of creatures…. It's challenging almost everything we thought we knew about human biology. How much power does this microbial zoo have over our bodies and even our brains? And in this episode, Nova Wonders: What's Living in You? And can you live without it? This is a black swallowtail butterfly, one of the most beautiful North American butterflies.
Harvard scientist Piotr Naskrecki has studied animals in forests around the world for more than three decades,…. I just found a nest of citronella ants.
They actually smell like citronella. And it was a mosquito like this that forever changed his view of what was living inside him. I was in Belize, teaching a course in macro-photography, and while there, I was bitten a lot by mosquitoes.
After coming back home to Boston, I realized that some of my mosquito bites were not really healing. And when I looked closely, I could see a thin, little straw-like structure that emerges from the wound every now and then to take a gulp of air. And being an entomologist, I realized that this is a breathing tube of a botfly. Botflies are parasites whose larvae grow on animals in the rainforests of Central and South America. Because of their very interesting life cycle, they are very difficult to see.
The botfly female catches a mosquito in flight, and holds it, and glues the eggs to the abdomen of the mosquito. When the eggs detect the heat of the body of the host, they immediately hatch, and then they crawl into the hole made by the proboscis of the mosquito.
Since botflies never land on their host, he figured the best way to actually see one was to raise the larvae to adulthood, in his own body. Obviously, even me, as, as an entomologist, I had this initial reaction of slight, slight revulsion. But that lasted for about three seconds, and then I thought, "What a fantastic chance for me to document it and show it to the world.
The larvae spent about three months growing in the skin of his arm, until they were the size of large peanuts. I think that the movie Alien got it wrong. A parasite doesn't want to be painful, because a victim that's thrashing, running, ripping things is likely to injure that animal that's, that's emerging from its body. They just pump you with painkillers, so you don't know that you have them, and they produce antibiotics, so the, the wound doesn't fester.
It wasn't painful; it wasn't unpleasant; it was very interesting. I know it sounds weird, but I felt an almost, almost father-child relationship with this organism that was growing in my body. I prepared a special container, and sure enough, it dropped into that soil, and in about three or four hours, it turned into the puparium, which is, kind of, an equivalent of a butterfly's chrysalis.
After six weeks, it finally emerged, and though the botfly would only live for a few more days, its effect has endured. The experience of having a botfly made me realize that we, ourselves, are an ecosystem. Our bodies are inhabited by a number of organisms, sometimes permanently or just temporarily.
Michelle Trautwein's research into face mites is part of the growing trend to figure out what exactly is living inside us. My research grew out of this natural shock that I had when I first heard that we have arachnids living on our faces. They have little, like, legs? What you're looking at there are his four tiny little claws, that they use to climb and hang on into your pores.
Here's this long tail, here, which is the perfect shape of a hair follicle. Even though these creatures live, literally, under our noses, we know surprisingly little about their two week lifecycle, because discoveries depend on chance encounters under a microscope.
Supposedly, they come out of your pores at night, and the males and females have sex on your face, then go back down into the pores to lay the eggs. We actually got to witness the birth of an egg. It's almost like a third of the size of the mite itself.
It's the only time we have seen it before, but the truth is that's happening on every human's face, all over the world, all the time, which is incredible to think about. So, that's… they're only on your face? I don't think there is anything you can do, in terms of face washing, showering, whatnot, that will get rid of them. We have two different species that live on us, one a little deeper than the other.
So, I like to scrape hard to make sure I get that second species. Michelle's trying to build the largest database of mites and mite D. You have got a beauty. That's the best one we have seen all day. They're not just these, you know, bugs on our face. They have this incredible ability to be storytellers and tell us more about our own history. As a species, they've been with us since our origins, so they've…you know, hundreds of thousands of years.
And I assume that we just inherited them from the ape ancestors before us. But, but the truth is, we don't know. But we do know they've been on Earth hundreds of times longer than we have. What's interesting about these two species on us, is that even though they look very similar, they are probably million years divergent from each other, which is probably as closely as bats are related to elephants. I mean they're so distant, it's almost like we showed up to their party.
We're really the newcomers here for sure. If you're surprised by mites, you'll be shocked by what else is living in and on your body. Everywhere around us there are trillions of viruses, fungi and bacteria. They live on our skin, in our guts, all throughout our bodies.
These creatures make up our "microbiome," the complex ecosystem that calls our body, "home. We look around the world, and we see butterflies and trees and cats and dogs. And we see them, and we can understand what they're doing. But the microbes, they're tiny. I mean, they're thousands of times smaller than a millimeter.
And that's why we tend to ignore them. The bacteria, in particular, play a key role. These single-celled creatures can be round, spiral or rod-shaped. And while they can make you sick, you might not realize bacteria can also keep you well. They play a vital role in your body, from helping you digest your food to fighting off dangerous invaders. This complicated relationship has been going on since before there were humans, because bacteria have been around from the very beginning.
Imagine that the tips of my fingers, over here, represent the formation of the earth four-and-a-half-billion years ago, and the tips of my fingers, over here, are present day. There's evidence that life in the form of single- celled bacteria first appeared somewhere around my wrist, over here. But it took another three-billion years, around my elbow, over here, before the most basic multi-celled animals evolved.
Mammals didn't show up until around the fingers of this hand. We only appeared in the last millimeter of my fingernail. One swipe of a nail file, and all traces of our existence would vanish.
Microbes have been the most abundant form of life for most of Earth's existence. We've been living with them all around and inside of us and the incredible thing is, for most of our history, we had no idea they were even there.
For millennia, humans struggled to see anything smaller than the width of a human hair, but in the late s, Dutchman Antonie van Leeuwenhoek peered through a microscope and discovered a new universe.
He started looking at little bits of white stuff he found in his teeth; he started looking at water in his backyard. And he was finding tiny little dancing organisms, what he called "animalcules," under these very crude microscopes.
To show the world, he made illustrations, images of single-celled creatures, including what we now call "bacteria. A lot of people didn't believe the drawings. People looked at these and said, "These can't be real. These things don't exist, they would exist everywhere. Seeing these tiny little things, which they weren't sure what they were, but they could tell that they were alive…it was absolutely a revolution.
They realized that the human body is more than just a compilation of our own cells, but it's also a compilation of many different, what they called "animal" cells. We didn't have a sense of what they were. Are these things that contribute to human health and disease? We really had no idea at the time. It was nearly years before French scientist Louis Pasteur helped explain what some of these creatures were actually doing to our bodies.
Pasteur proposed this idea called "germ theory. His theory led to the discovery of specific microbes, or "pathogens" that had caused incalculable human suffering. Tens of millions of us were dying a year of things like tuberculosis, of measles, of rubella; so much so that people would take photos of their dead children along with their living children, because death was so ever-prevalent.
It was so constant in our lives that we accepted it. We didn't understand the process at the time, but there are lots of ways pathogens can make us sick: Vibrio cholera, the source of cholera, secretes molecules that drain fluids and nutrients from the cells of our intestines; Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism, releases a toxin that blocks neurotransmitters and paralyzes muscles.
And microbes have also evolved elaborate ways of manipulating each other. There's a whole suite of tools that microbes have to actually kill off or chase off other microbes: These toxins are poisonous to our cells and can make you really, really sick. Casualties of microbial warfare, we were helpless, until an accidental discovery changed medicine forever. In one of the glass dishes where he cultured germs for his experiments, Fleming noticed, one day in , that some mold, had begun to grow.
British microbiologist Alexander Fleming noticed that a mold called Penicillium had grown in one of his petri dishes and killed the bacteria he'd been studying.
The mold was releasing a chemical that weakened the cell walls of the bacteria, so as they grew larger, they would explode and die. Scientists used the mold to make a miracle drug called "penicillin," and the first antibiotic was born. You have to understand how transformative this was. Before this, if you got a cut on your finger and it got infected, you could get septicemia.
You get a bacterial infection in your blood, it could be fatal. Before antibiotics it was, in essence, a coin-flip whether or not you're going to get better. During World War II, penicillin saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. It was the dawn of a new antibiotic age, and we developed an arsenal from the natural chemicals that microbes had long used to fight each other.
For the vast majority of time on this earth, it's just been single-celled organisms. And they were fighting like a tiger and a lion would fight if you put them in a cage. They were fighting for space, they were fighting for resources.
And they started to produce chemicals to kill each other off. So, antibiotics have been around, we suppose, for billions of years, right? This is not something new. We have streptomycin, aureomycin, terramycin, chloromycin, arithromycin, magnamycin, bacitracin…. Since the early days of discovery, we've produced dozens of antibiotics that cure a huge range of ailments. Fueled by our success, we launched an all-out war on germs.
It's difficult to think of a breakthrough in human history that's had a greater effect on modern medicine. The war on germs is still going on today. Every supermarket is filled with soaps, detergents and disinfectants, designed not just to clean, but to kill germs and keep us safe. But what if all germs aren't all bad? Is it possible that some microbes are actually helpful?
Could it be that some dirt is good? We're going down to the pond. We are going to get enough gubbins in this to make a whole living ecosystem, all right? Microbiologist Jack Gilbert has been trying to answer this question for decades. When I was a kid, I used to like to make ecosystems in jars, let it create a new world, almost like our planet in a microcosm. And that led me to really love biology. Somebody offered me to go and study bacteria in the Antarctic.
I was 21 years old; for me that was an adventure. And so, right there in the wastes of Antarctica, I could understand microbes in the same way as I could understand insects, and birds and animals. Like other creatures, humans are filled with trillions of microbes. Altogether, they weigh several pounds and do everything from producing vitamins to training our immune systems.
Scientists like Jack are starting to discover how microbes can affect our health, and lately, his work has taken a very personal turn. As a father, when my son was diagnosed with autism, I wanted to do something. I wanted to "fix the problem. He's my son, and he's wonderful and beautiful just the way he is.
But what I wanted to do is find ways to use my knowledge of the microbes and their effect upon our bodies to really help children who are suffering from different types of diseases.
Jack thinks modern living has isolated us from key microbes that evolved with us over time. In America, we spend 90 percent of our lives living inside, right? That's crazy; we're an outdoor species. We used to work outdoors nearly all day. We, our kids used to play outdoors all the time. He wants to figure out if these changes to our lifestyle affect our health. So, I'm very interested in trying to understand the intricate relationships between our microbiome and our body's health and wellness.
With so little known about our microbiome, Jack and others are looking for a place to start this exploration. Every three minutes in the United States, someone visits the emergency room with a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction to food. Asthma is one of the most common childhood medical conditions, especially in urban areas. Over the last 20 years, life-threatening allergies in the United States have increased 50 percent, and asthma has gone up by about a quarter.
Jack is trying to figure out why these immune-related diseases are on the rise, and he's intrigued by one group that's bucked this trend, the Amish. When it comes to their health, the Amish are surprisingly similar to other Americans: We are taught to live a simple and plain lifestyle, close to God. I think that is the foundation of everything we do or should be. Working with animals is very basic, it's part of us. The homes are on the farm, I mean yards from the barn.
So, the whole family will be working in that environment, pretty much from birth, all right? And that gives them a really large exposure to the microbial world of the farm. There are possibly billions of species of bacteria on the planet, but fewer than 50 regularly make us sick. Jack thinks exposure to many of the other bacteria is actually a good thing, because it can help train our immune systems not to overreact to the world. The key are "soldier cells," part of the immune system.
They travel through the bloodstream searching for bacteria and other foreign objects. When they find one, they tell the immune system, "Hey, there's something here. They "nom, nom, nom. The body then produces more soldier cells that keep looking for foreign targets.
But Jack thinks that if a person is not exposed to a wide range of invaders, and the soldier cells aren't kept busy, then, when they do find something, they can overreact, causing allergy symptoms. What we see, when we look at the immune system of Amish children, is that they have a lot of these soldier cells running around inside their body. And they're constantly being exposed to lots of things all the time, so you have this very active immune system. To see if there's something unusual about the microbes on Amish farms, Gilbert's team exposed lab mice, predisposed to allergies, to Amish dust.
Remarkably, they never developed symptoms. If you can, get it down there in that crack, 'cause then it will collect it. So now, Jack and his research partner, Mark Holbreich want to know what makes this dust so special. We are using these sampling devices up in the barns, in the milking sheds, even in the house. And then we can collect the dust from this material, which allows us to extract it and find out what microbes are in it.
Could a certain combination of microbes protect us? Perhaps ones we've evolved with for millions of years but have now lost touch with in the modern world?
The rise in allergies and asthma is not the first clue that our war on microbes may be causing collateral damage. One of the first signs involved a surprising discovery about another common illness. Those stomach pains that you talk about, the gnawing, the burning, those are obvious symptoms of gastric ulcer. What I want you to do is to work on your attitude.
For years, doctors were convinced ulcers were caused by stress and unhealthy lifestyle choices. I started to think there was something really wrong with my stomach.
They could be life-threatening, and millions struggled with chronic pain. I remember my early years as a physician, still going around being taught that ulcers are caused by stress.
Hearing other physicians tell their patients, "You need to calm down and be less stressed. But in the early s, Australian doctors Barry Marshall and Robin Warren made a shocking discovery. When they examined biopsies of gastric ulcers, nearly all of them were overrun with this never before identified bacterium, H.
They proposed a new theory that flew in the face of all conventional wisdom. Could this newly discovered bacterium cause ulcers? So, we started off trying to make some animal models. We couldn't infect rats, we couldn't infect pigs. Five or six days later, I started waking up at about five o'clock in the morning and running into the bathroom and throwing up.
A test showed he was overrun with H. He used antibiotics to kill off the H. In the field at the time, there was a saying that would go around, and that was, "The only good Helicobacter pylori is a dead Helicobacter pylori.
A hundred years ago, most people on the planet had H. After the discovery in the 80s that it could cause ulcers, U. Today, this bacteria is found in only about a third of all Americans, and the number of people suffering from ulcers has declined by 40 percent.
But, while ulcer numbers came down, researchers like David Pride were discovering things might be more complicated than they first appeared. So Helicobacter pylori has evolved with us for tens of thousands of years, and now that we're eliminating the organism, we're starting to see a different group of diseases pop up. These range from cancer to allergies, asthma and even obesity. Scientists don't know yet, but after decades of waging war against microbes, we can no longer simply look at them as enemies to be eliminated.
Traditionally, we've thought of microbes as pathogens, so a pathogen being an organism that's going to come into the body, do us absolutely no good and cause disease. But it's a really complicated situation to try and figure out what should we eliminate? How do we eliminate it, and what are the consequences if we eliminate the organisms? It isn't a simple, "Remove this microbe and you get rid of this condition.
To me, that's the key takeaway from the H. After centuries of seeing germs as evil, biologists are discovering it's not so simple. Take this germ, Escherichia coli, E. Like a lot of bacteria, it looks like a tiny, hairy hotdog. This is a hotdog you don't want to eat. It produces a toxin that puts thousands of Americans in the hospital, and kills about 30 every year.
But that's just some kinds of E. Most of you have some in your gut right now, and they're not hurting you. In fact, a bunch of them are busy breaking down your last meal and producing vitamins your body needs. Good and bad, they look exactly the same. So, how can we tell the difference? It turns out, the only way is to look at their genes, their D. At the University of California, San Diego, scientists have collected thousands of oral, fecal and skin samples from donors around the world.
After more than a century of studying how microbes make us sick, they want to understand how they can make us healthy, but they can't do it by just looking. In the old days, Pasteur could find out there were a lot of bacteria somewhere just by looking down a microscope, but you couldn't really find out what sort were there. In contrast, what we're doing is we're sequencing the D.
Studying the microbiome in this way has become possible only recently, with powerful supercomputers processing enormous amounts of D. Lines on the screen show connections between 12, donors and the trillions of microbial genes they carry.
The goal is to identify the microbes that inhabit us and what combination makes our bodies healthy or unhealthy. Everywhere we look, every person we look at, we find more and more unique microbial genes where we have no idea what they do, at this point. They're looking to see if lifestyle choices, like where you live or what you eat, affect what lives inside you. And while they don't yet know what a healthy microbiome looks like, patterns suggest the key is balance and diversity.
It's not single microbes that have the effect that seem to be important, it's collections of microbes, the number of species that you find in the sample that relates to some interesting health properties. Many new studies have found a connection between microbial diversity and health. After generations of waging war on microbes, these discoveries may revolutionize how we understand and treat our bodies. Exploration of this new biological frontier is just beginning, and the deeper scientists go into our guts, the more they realize it's not a wasteland at all.
It's more like a lush jungle, and, like a jungle, it seems to thrive on diversity. Healthy people seem to have thousands of different kinds of microbes sharing territory and resources, but if that balance gets disturbed, and certain microbes begin to dominate the jungle, the entire body can be put at risk.
I'm a healthy person. You know, I was fortunate enough to fall into the categories that they're looking for. Sam is one of an elite group of donors for a cutting edge medical procedure that saves thousands of lives. Only three percent of those who apply are approved, a far lower acceptance rate than Harvard.
These are young individuals, on average, around their mid- to late twenties. They have a robust diet that's higher fiber content than the average individual. Sam's donation will be used in a fecal transplant, giving his healthy gut bacteria to a sick patient. Fecal transplants are the closest thing to a miracle I've seen in medicine. Some people call the fecal microbiome transplant the "brown bullet," like the "silver bullet," but it works.
We just know that stool works. We don't know, though, what is in the stool; an extremely complex matter. Countless animals eat feces to diversify their gut microbes. Even among humans, the practice dates back to fourth-century China, when patients drank bowls of feces soup.
But until recently, it wasn't part of western medicine. Now, a thousand hospitals, in all 50 states get their stool from one company, OpenBiome. Each gram of stool contains perhaps billion bacteria and hundreds of millions of other microbes.
The feces is mixed with saline and a preservative, this brown liquid is not heated or sterilized, because the goal is to fill edible capsules with living germs. These pills will be used to treat a gut infection, called Clostridium difficile, that kills nearly 15, Americans a year. Up to three percent of healthy adults have C.
A rod-shaped bacteria, its many long legs, called "flagella," can help it colonize the gut quickly, if given the chance.
Clostridium difficile is a bacteria that lives in your gut naturally, but it's kept at bay because of all the good bacteria. The challenge comes when you have antibiotics for many other reasons and that kills a lot of the good bacteria that were out-competing C. That's exactly what has happened to Kelly Poole after taking antibiotics for dental work. Now, she has a C. I've been pretty miserable. The stomach cramps and just the overall, just the pain. I didn't leave my house for two or three weeks, because all of a sudden, it's like, you don't even know you have to go to the bathroom, you have to go to the bathroom right now.
So, I mean, it's glamorous. In fact, "difficile" means difficult in Latin. Antibiotics work on the order of magnitude of about 40 percent of the time, but fecal transplants work about 89 percent of the time. Not too many things in medicine work nearly 90 percent of the time.
So, I think what we really have to do is start to question our assumptions of what is disgusting and what we feel about that. Even though they are the main source of the problem, more antibiotics are the usual treatment for C diff infections. But after taking multiple courses, Kelly is still sick, so she's come to see Dr. Monika Fischer at Indiana University Hospital. Antibiotics kill most bacteria, but like any creature under attack, some of the fittest will survive.
These reproduce and create a new, resistant generation that can't be killed by antibiotics. In the animal world, the process of natural selection can take millions of years, but bacteria can evolve resistance in only minutes. By putting antibiotics onto a little growth plate with different doses of antibiotic, you can watch in nearly real time, as individual microbes evolve resistance.
So, you have Dose Number One, kills most of the microbes that are in that region. But, eventually, a few of them can evolve resistance to that antibiotic, and then they can spread up to the strip of the plate where Dose Number Two is.
This strip has a higher dose of antibiotics, but soon it and even higher doses will lose out to new resistant strains. They spread across Dose Number Three, and so on. And that's how you can visualize an evolution of resistance to antibiotics. In a dangerous cycle, more antibiotics lead to greater C. And, making things worse, antibiotics also kill off the diverse microbes that usually keep C. Many of us take antibiotic, you know, for all kinds of reasons.
And we all think about killing the bad bugs, right? But we are forgetting about that we are killing the healthy, useful bugs in our colon as well. The amoxicillin, the antibiotic you took, destroyed your healthy bacterial communities in the gut.
So, the antibiotics against C. So, we have to do something different. I thought maybe, you know, she had some secret magic pill. It turns out she does. What is a poop transplant? I've never even heard of that.
Who is a poop donor? Who thinks of that? I'm actually lucky to be able to offer it in the form of a capsule, because previously we only could offer it via colonoscopy or enema delivery. All right, I just have to take a pill and we're done. And she's like, "No, it's 30 pills, all at once. Maybe it's going to be a little hard to swallow but…And then I said, "Now, these are poop pills? Taking the pills will work something like an organ transplant, though in this case, the organ will be an entire community of microbes recolonizing an essentially empty gut.
There's no doubt about it, it's weird. But one of the doctors told me the Chinese have been drinking a poop soup for a thousand years. Drinking poop soup, that's weird. That would make me squeamish.
Taking 30 pills, as disgusting as it may sound, as obscene as it may sound, I don't know why you would not do it. You can't blame Kelly for being a bit grossed out. We're taught from the time we were toddlers not to touch poop, never mind eat it! And yet, in some cases, doing the gross thing might be the healthy thing. And in a certain way, it makes sense to transplant the healthy gut of one person over to another. But it is risky, because researchers are only just beginning to unravel all the intricate connections between our microbiome and our bodies, connections that may reach far beyond our bowels and even to our brains.
A series of groundbreaking experiments began in Scientists at Washington University took fecal bacteria from an obese human and gave it to a mouse. The mouse became obese, and our understanding of the power of what's living in us changed forever. I can't tell you how incredible that was.
It was a seminal discovery. It was, it was so important for our field, because it proved that the microbes were playing a role, an active role in shaping our body. It opened up all kinds of potentials. You could test all kinds of things. Now you could transfer human microbes to mice, and to elicit a change in the mice? To me, that was amazing. Soon, researchers began to study the effect of the microbiome on nearly every part of the body, even the brain. Our brains are directly linked to our guts through one of the longest nerves in our bodies, the vagus nerve.
It helps regulate a wide range of involuntary functions, like heart rate and digestion. And now, scientists are discovering that microbes can affect what travels on this neural superhighway. Certain bacteria produce neurotransmitters in our gut, which are sensed by our gut environment and actually send signals up to our brain, changing brain chemistry in our heads.
So, things like depression, anxiety, autism; things like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's; other neurodevelopmental conditions, even A. Sarkis Mazmanian is trying to understand this brain-gut connection. He works with some of the only bacteria-free creatures on the planet, germ-free mice. Though they're vulnerable to disease, they can live a normal lifespan, if they stay in their bubbles.
These animals are called "gnotobiotic" or germ-free animals, and they're devoid of all microorganisms. And so, this allows us to add back any microbe that we want and look at the effects of that microbe on the animal. Sarkis decided to test the effect of the microbiome on the brain, because certain neurological diseases have a surprising connection to gut disorders, diseases like Parkinson's.
Upwards of 80 percent of Parkinson's patients exhibit severe constipation. In most cases, the constipation presents itself years, if not decades before the first onset of motor symptoms.
Could microbes trigger the symptoms of Parkinson's disease? To find out, he's transplanted gut bacteria from humans with Parkinson's into the mice. They stumble and shake as they cross a balance beam. Patients with Parkinson's will have tremors or altered gait, hunched posture and other physical motor impairments.
And those mice develop all of the features of Parkinson's: By removing the gut bacteria, we showed that the symptoms of the animals improved dramatically, to the point where we didn't see any detectable motor symptoms in these animals. The study showed that the microbiota was involved in those symptoms. Now, whether or not the microbiota is driving or can ameliorate or reduce symptoms in human Parkinson's still remains unknown. It's possible that a molecule produced by a bacteria in the gut could be sending signals to the brain, through the bloodstream or nerve connections, triggering the symptoms of Parkinson's.
For now, the mechanism remains unknown. To further explore the connection between the gut and the brain, Sarkis is looking at another disease associated with digestive problems: He works with mice that have autism-like symptoms, like repetitive marble burying. The features of autism include repetitive behavior. An animal that has this compulsive behavior, once they bury a few marbles, will feel compelled to bury the next one, and the next one, and the next one.
Sarkis looked at the intestines of these animals and discovered they had a condition known as "leaky gut. And this might shed light on autism. We were really excited, because children with autism also exhibit leaky gut. And when the team gave the mice a bacteria called B. When we carefully selected organisms from the human microbiota, and introduced them to the mice, not only did we see improvements in their gastrointestinal symptoms, but we saw improvements in marble burying.
Using the mouse models, we've been able to reverse the symptoms of autism through the microbiome, but I think it's important to remember these are still early days in research. All mouse models are inherently limited, because they're not the human condition.
It's too early to know what his discoveries mean, simply because: What we do in animals doesn't always translate to human beings, but we know that your body is a massive, interconnecting, vibrant ecosystem of life, right? So, when one thing changes, it changes other things. We're just beginning to glimpse the countless ways bacteria might be affecting our health, but there's already one microbiome treatment that is consistently effective.
So, we're ready to do the capsules. I'm going to go downstairs and get them. They're stored at minus C, so they're going to feel really cold going down. To preserve the bacteria, the pills have been in a deepfreeze since they were manufactured at OpenBiome in Boston. The microbes aren't affected by the cold. You are opening your body up to some risk, and my understanding is, because this is new, they don't know the total story.
But on the plus side is, you know, that it's been tested to make sure it doesn't have certain diseases. Because there's so much unknown about the relationship between the microbiome and a range of illnesses, the best OpenBiome can do is eliminate donors who might inadvertently transfer something unwanted. The screening process is very rigorous. We look for G. We know there's a connection between the gut and the brain, so we look for psychiatric diseases.
We look at obesity; cardiac history and things that we know are very strongly related to the microbiome, like inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. There's no taste, but I'm not letting it stick around in there very long. We're very, very early days yet, in this field. These microbes act in communities. We haven't a clue how they interact with each other. We harbor bacteria and viruses that may not cause disease in me, but when transferred to an individual with a different genetic makeup, may affect them adversely.
I mean, it's pretty crazy isn't it? That we have no idea what's in the stool, right? We just do it because it works. There's a hundred-trillion bacteria in there; there are viruses; there are fungi.
We don't really know what is helping. So, it's pretty amazing stuff. You just wake up, and you go to the bathroom the next day, and it's glorious. For me, it's magic. How wonderful that is, that you just take healthy human waste, right, and save someone from dying? And they can put the C. We're sort of a large superorganism. And now that we know that these microbes, particularly the bacteria, are contributing to us in so many different ways and have been evolving with us for so many years now.
It sort of changes our outlook on ourselves, where we realize it's not only important that we keep ourselves healthy, but it's important that we keep our microbial communities healthy as well. We are the frontier of research and development into the roles the microbiome can play in helping us to treat disease and make people healthier.
Everything from autism, depression and anxiety, could be related to the microbiome, so, I have hope that we are going to develop therapeutics which will change lives in the future. We got lots of things that are alive in there. We've got insects; we have invertebrates; we've got bacteria; we have archaea; we have fungi; we've got everything.
It's an entire world! Hunt for clues in the universe to answer one of humanity's biggest questions: The search for extraterrestrial life is an age-old quest. We have no idea what's going on there. The ingredients for life are everywhere. The planet Earth, a ball of rock about 8, miles in diameter: Almost eight-billion people call it home, along with billions of other species. So, what are the chances that all the fun is only happening right here, in our tiny corner of the universe?
Today, astronomers and engineers are building new tools to probe our solar system and our galaxy, hunting for clues of life beyond Earth. A few years ago, a group of amateur astronomers discovered a mysterious star. Located about 1, lightyears from Earth, the star flickers erratically, and no one knows why.
If a star dims at regular intervals, chances are it's caused by an orbiting planet, and typically, it's only by a fraction of one percent. But the light from this star is dimming by more, much more. The thing about this star is the light dims every now and again, but it's being dimmed by 22 percent. So, that's not a planet. That's much too much, even for a Jupiter-sized planet.
You don't get anywhere near that kind of dimming. So what is it? Unlocking the star's secrets becomes the quest of Tabetha Boyajian, a stellar astrophysicist. Soon, people are calling it "Tabby's star. I worked with dozens of other astronomers for several years, trying to figure out what could be causing these strange fluctuations in its light.
Then, one of Tabby's colleagues offers a possible idea, a bit outside the standard astronomy box…. When I showed him this star he said "Wow, this is really weird, and we don't have an explanation for it.
The strange light pattern makes it seem more like a death star planet rather than a star. To dim a star by so much, an alien megastructure would have to be at least half as big as the star itself. But, when the theory is first proposed, astronomers can't rule it out. The behavior of Tabby's star is quite weird. Given that we have no idea what's going there, I'm not too quick to throw out theories. Could this be some alien megastructure?
Tabby and her team will continue to study the star, hoping to find more evidence. For some people, the idea that there's a civilization out there, capable of building a giant structure around their sun, would be a dream come true. And it's not just the movies. Even the Pentagon recently admitted that it secretly investigated U.
Right now, as far as technologically advanced life goes, we have a sample size of one: In fact, when it comes to any form of life, whether it looks like this or this or this, the only examples we know of are right here on Earth.
And the truth is, if we found even one other example of this kind of life, it would be the biggest scientific discovery in our lifetimes. In , NASA took a major step in the hunt for life beyond Earth, launching the Kepler Space Telescope, to track down signs of Earthlike planets beyond our solar system. Up until then, astronomers had found about exoplanets, but few were anything like Earth. Small, rocky planets like ours are not easy to spot. Planets are literally lost in the glare of their parent stars.
The brightness difference, the contrast between a star like our sun and the earth that's right next to it is billion to one. So, instead of hunting for light reflecting off a planet's surface, the telescope focuses on starlight. What Kepler did was it looked in a part of the Milky Way galaxy where we had lots of stars in a small field.
And it just took pictures over and over again. And occasionally, if those stars have planets, then sometimes those planets would come in front of the star. As the planet comes around, it's going to block part of the star, and that light won't get to you. And so, that constant level that you see from the star suddenly goes down just a bit. So, these momentary dimmings of light that repeat once every orbit are indicative of a planet orbiting a star.
Astrophysicists, like John Asher Johnson and his team at Harvard, use Kepler data to estimate an orbiting planet's size and distance from its star.
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