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Home All Sections Search. Log In Welcome, User. Find a Home Filter by: Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke is announcing plans to refurbish the old Navy yard in Boston that's home to the USS Constitution, the world's oldest commissioned warship still afloat. The 10 fastest-growing metro areas October 4. A glance at US mortgage rates October 4. US mortgage rates edge lower; year rate at 4.
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A glance at US mortgage rates Long-term U. The key year rate reached its highest level in…. Mamie Doud Eisenhower's Iowa birthplace involved in lawsuit A dispute over whether to sell the Iowa birthplace of former first lady Mamie Doud Eisenhower has led to a lawsuit and mismanagement allegations. US pending home sales fell in August Pending home sales slipped in August as fewer Americans signed contracts to purchase a house, the fourth decline in the past five months.
No matter your age, what the Federal Reserve does to interest rates will most likely affect you. The central bank raised what's called the federal…. Minnesota's only Alcoa 'Care-Free' aluminum home is a s time capsule.
Opposite styles attract in a Minneapolis couple's modern urban lake home. Home of the Month. What are Minnesotans' go-to summer traditions? There are quite a few. Vacationing boomers put new spin on grandparenting by taking grandkids along. Surly sells 1, cheeseburgers a week. Communication is central in expressing sexual desire and 'complicated emotional states', and is also the 'mechanism for negotiating the relationship implications of sexual activity and emotional meanings'.
Gender differences appear to exist in communicating sexual desire, for example, masculine people are generally perceived to be more interested in sex than feminine people, and research suggests that masculine people are more likely than feminine people to express their sexual interest. This may be greatly affected by masculine people being less inhibited by social norms for expressing their desire, being more aware of their sexual desire or succumbing to the expectation of their gender culture.
On the other hand, it is known masculinity is associated with aggressive behavior in all mammals, and most likely explains at least part of the fact that masculine people are more likely to express their sexual interest. This is known as the Challenge hypothesis. Various studies show different communication strategies with a feminine person refusing a masculine person's sexual interest. Some research, like that of Murnen,  show that when feminine people offer refusals, the refusals are verbal and typically direct.
When masculine people do not comply with this refusal, feminine people offer stronger and more direct refusals. However, research from Perper and Weis  showed that rejection includes acts of avoidance, creating distractions, making excuses, departure, hinting, arguments to delay, etc.
These differences in refusal communication techniques are just one example of the importance of communicative competence for both masculine and feminine gender cultures. A study tested gender stereotypes and labeling within young children. The researchers divided this into two different studies, the first investigated how children identified the differences between gender labels of boys and girls, the second study looked at both gender labeling and stereotyping in the relationship of mother and child.
Within the first study, 23 children between the ages of 2 and 7 underwent a series of gender labelling and gender stereotyping tests consisting of showing the children either pictures of males and females or objects such as a hammer or a broom then identifying or labeling those to a certain gender. The results of these tests showed that children under 3 years could make gender-stereotypic associations. The second study looked at gender labelling and stereotyping in the relationship of mother and child using three separate methods.
The first consisted of identifying gender labeling and stereotyping, essentially the same method as the first study. The second consisted of behavioral observations, which looked at ten-minute play sessions with mother and child using gender specific toys.
The third was a series of questionnaires such as an "Attitude Toward Women Scale", " Personal Attributes Questionnaire ", and "Schaefer and Edgerton Scale" which looked at the family values of the mother. The results of these studies showed the same as the first study with regards to labelling and stereotyping.
They also identified in the second method that the mothers positive reactions and responses to same-sex or opposite-sex toys played a role in how children identified them. These two studies, conducted by Beverly I. Leinbach and Cherie O'Boyle, showed that gender stereotyping and labeling is acquired at a very young age, and that social interactions and associations play a large role in how genders are identified.
Virginia Woolf , in the s, made the point: Yet it is the masculine values that prevail'  remade sixty years later by psychologist Carol Gilligan who used it to show that psychological tests of maturity have generally been based on masculine parameters, and so tended to show that women were less 'mature'. Gilligan countered this in her ground-breaking work, In a Different Voice , holding that maturity in women is shown in terms of different, but equally important, human values.
Gender stereotypes are extremely common in society. The brain has limited perceptual and memory systems, so it categorizes information into fewer and simpler units which allows for more efficient information processing. In one study, the effects of gender stereotypes on children's mathematical abilities were tested. In this study of American children between the ages of six and ten, it was found that the children, as early as the second grade, demonstrated the gender stereotype that mathematics is a 'boy's subject'.
This may show that the mathematical self-belief is influenced before the age in which there are discernible differences in mathematical achievement.
According to the study by Jean Lipman-Blumen, women who grew up following traditional gender roles from childhood were less likely to want to be highly educated while women brought up with the view that men and women are equal were more likely to want higher education. This result indicates that gender roles that have been passed down traditionally can influence stereotypes about gender.
In a later study, Deaux and her colleagues found that most people think women are more nurturant , but less self-assertive than men. To put it another way, women do not have an inherently nurturant personality, rather that a nurturing personality is acquired by whoever happens to be doing the housework.
In a study of gender stereotypes by Jacobs it was found that parents' stereotypes interact with the sex of their child to directly influence the parents' beliefs about the child's abilities. In turn, parents' beliefs about their child directly influence their child's self-perceptions, and both the parents' stereotypes and the child's self-perceptions influence the child's performance.
Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. A review article of stereotype threat research relating to the relationship between gender and mathematical abilities concluded "that although stereotype threat may affect some women, the existing state of knowledge does not support the current level of enthusiasm for this [as a] mechanism underlying the gender gap in mathematics".
In Jolien A. Researchers took participants through a fictional Moral Choice Dilemma Task, which consisted of eight scenarios "in which sacrificing one person can save several others of unspecified gender In four scenarios, participants are asked to sacrifice a man to save several others of unspecified gender , and in four other scenarios they are asked to sacrifice a woman. Gender stereotypes are frequently brought up as one disadvantage to women during the hiring process,  and as one explanation of the lack of women in key organizational positions.
These traits do not line up with the perceived traditional female gender role stereotype. One's performance at work is also evaluated based on one's gender. If a female and a male worker show the same performance, the implications of that performance vary depending on the person's gender and on who observes the performance; if a man performs exceedingly well he is perceived as driven or goal-oriented and generally seen in a positive light while a woman showing a similar performance is often described using adjectives with negative connotations.
Consequently, that gender stereotype filter leads to a lack of fair evaluation and, in turn, to fewer women occupying higher paying positions.
Gender stereotypes contain women at certain, lower levels; getting trapped within the glass ceiling. While the number of women in the workforce occupying management positions is slowly increasing,  women currently fill only 2. In relation to white women, women of color are disproportionally affected by the negative influence their gender has on their chances in the labor market. Activists during second-wave feminism have also used the term "horizontal oppressions" to describe this phenomenon.
Liberal feminist theory states that due to these systemic factors of oppression and discrimination, women are often deprived of equal work experiences because they are not provided equal opportunities on the basis of legal rights. Liberal feminists further propose that an end needs to be put to discrimination based on gender through legal means, leading to equality and major economic redistributions. While activists have tried calling on Title VII to provide an equal hiring and promotional process, that practice has had limited success.
This number varies by age, race, and other perceived attributes of hiring agents. A proposed step towards solving the problem of the gender pay gap and the unequal work opportunities is the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment which would constitutionally guarantee equal rights for women. If a woman does act according to female stereotypes, she is likely to receive backlash for not being competent enough; if she does not act according to the stereotypes connected to her gender and behaves more androgynous , or even masculine , it is likely to cause backlash through third-party punishment or further job discrimination.
Rosabeth Moss Kanter identified four types of stereotypes given to professional women via the media. This leads audiences to question the trustworthiness of an iron maiden, because she is seen as strategically playing the field to appease voters. The pet stereotype is given to women who are identified as helpmates, cheerleaders, or mascots, which then leads the audience to see these women as naive or weak and unable to lead without a man's help.
If a professional woman is seen as a mother, she is more likely to be seen as compassionate and caring, but also has the capacity to be shrew, punishing, and scolding. Additionally, it is possible for her leadership abilities to be called into question due to perceived conflicts with her maternal responsibilities.
The fourth stereotype, seductress , is assigned to women who speak and act rather femininely, or have been victims of sexual harassment. The media tends to focus on the seductress woman's sex appeal and physical appearance in opposition to her policy stances and rhetoric.
A proposed step to relieve women from that double bind is the above-mentioned ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment, as it would further legal gender equality and prohibit gender-based discrimination,  regardless if a woman is acting according to female gender stereotypes or in defiance of them.
Gender stereotypes and roles can also be supported implicitly. Implicit stereotypes are the unconscious influence of attitudes a person may or may not be aware that they hold. A person is influenced by these attitudes even though they are not aware. Gender stereotypes can also be held in this manner. These implicit stereotypes can often be demonstrated by the Implicit-association test IAT. One example of an implicit gender stereotype is that males are seen as better at mathematics than females.
It has been found that men have stronger positive associations with mathematics than women, while women have stronger negative associations with mathematics and the more strongly a woman associated herself with the female gender identity, the more negative her association with mathematics. These associations have been disputed for their biological connection to gender and have been attributed to social forces that perpetuate stereotypes such as aforementioned stereotype that men are better at mathematics than women.
This particular stereotype has been found in American children as early as second grade. The same test with Singaporean children found that the strength of their mathematics-gender stereotype and their gender identity predicted the association between individuals and mathematical ability. It has been shown that this stereotype also reflects mathematical performance: The results were controlled for general gender inequality and yet were still significant.
Because this stereotype is so well known many women assume they lack such technical skills when in reality, the gap in technological skill level between men and women is significantly less than many women assume. In the journal article written by Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz video games have been guilty of using sexualised female characters, who wear revealing clothing with an 'ideal' figure.
It has been shown, female gamers can experience lower self-efficacy when playing a game with a sexualized female character. Women have been stereotyped in online games and have shown to be quite sexist in their appearance. It has been shown these kind of character appearances have influenced peoples' beliefs about gender capabilities by assigning certain qualities to the male and female characters in different games. The concept of gender inequality is often perceived as something that is non-existent within the online community, because of the anonymity possible online.
Remote or home-working greatly reduces the volume of information one individual gives another compared to face-to-face encounters,  providing fewer opportunities for unequal treatment but it seems real-world notions of power and privilege are being duplicated: This freedom allows the user to create characters and identities with a different appearance than their own in reality, essentially allowing them to create a new identity, confirming regardless of actual gender those who are perceived to be female are treated differently because of their on-line gender identity.
Despite the growing number of women who partake in online communities, and the anonymous space provided by the Internet, issues such as gender inequality, the issue has simply been transplanted into the online world.
Elections of increasing numbers of women into office serves as a basis for many scholars to claim that voters are not biased towards a candidate's gender. However, it has been shown that female politicians are perceived as only being superior when it comes to handling women's rights and poverty , whereas male politicians are perceived to be better at dealing with crime and foreign affairs.
It has also been predicted that gender does only highly matter for female candidates that have not been politically established. These predictions apply further to established candidates, stating that gender would not be a defining factor for their campaign or the focal point of media coverage.
This has been disproven by multiple scholars, often based on Hillary Clinton 's multiple campaigns for the office of President of the United States. Additionally, when voters don't have a lot of information about a female candidate, they are likely to view her as being a stereotypical woman which they often take as a basis for not electing her because they consider typical male qualities as being crucial for someone holding a political office.
Throughout the 20th century, women in the United States saw a dramatic shift in social and professional aspirations and norms. During this time, women were expected to take up industrial jobs and support the troops abroad through the means of domestic industry. Moving from "homemakers" and "caregivers", women were now factory workers and "breadwinners" for the family. However, after the war, men returned home to the United States and women, again, saw a shift in social and professional dynamics.
With the reuniting of the nuclear family, the ideals of American Suburbia boomed. Throughout the s and s, middle-class families moved in droves from urban living into newly developed single-family homes on former farmland just outside major cities. Thus established what many modern critics describe as the "private sphere".
One major concern of feminism, is that women occupy lower-ranking job positions than men, and do most of the housework.
Another recent article in The New York Times indicates that young women today are closing the pay gap. Luisita Lopez Torregrosa has noted, "Women are ahead of men in education last year, 55 percent of U.
And a study shows that in most U. According to contemporary gender role ideology, gender roles are continuously changing. This can be seen in Londa Schiebinger 's Has Feminism Changed Science , in which she states, "Gendered characteristics - typically masculine or feminine behaviors, interests, or values-are not innate, nor are they arbitrary.
They are formed by historical circumstances. They can also change with historical circumstances. In conclusion, gender roles in the contemporary sex gender model are socially constructed, always changing, and do not really exist since, they are ideologies that society constructs in order for various benefits at various times in history. The men's rights movement MRM is a part of the larger men's movement. It branched off from the men's liberation movement in the earlys. The men's rights movement is made up of a variety of groups and individuals who are concerned about what they consider to be issues of male disadvantage, discrimination and oppression.
Scholars consider the men's rights movement or parts of the movement to be a backlash to feminism. Men's rights groups have called for male-focused governmental structures to address issues specific to men and boys including education, health, work and marriage. Related to this is the Father's Rights Movement, whose members seek social and political reforms that affect fathers and their children. They therefore are systemically discriminatory against males regardless of their actual caregiving ability, because males are typically seen as the bread-winner, and females as the care-giver.
Gender neutrality is the movement to end discrimination of gender altogether in society through means of gender neutral language , the end of sex segregation and other means. Transgender is the state of one's gender identity or gender expression not matching one's assigned sex. The definition of transgender includes:.
While people self-identify as transgender, the transgender identity umbrella includes sometimes-overlapping categories. These include transsexual ; transvestite or cross-dresser ; genderqueer ; androgyne ; and bigender. In an interview, celebrity drag queen RuPaul talked about society's ambivalence to the differences in the people who embody these terms.
Sexual orientation is defined by the interplay between a person's emotional and physical attraction toward others. By basic definition, the term heterosexual is typically used in reference to someone who is attracted to people of the opposite sex, the term homosexual is used to classify people who are attracted to those of the same sex, and the term bisexual is used to identify those who are attracted to both the same and opposite sexes.
This idea was first proposed by sexologist Alfred Kinsey in After conducting a series of interviews, Kinsey and his team of researchers concluded that most people fell somewhere on a spectrum between strictly heterosexual and strictly homosexual. Their findings suggested that sexual orientation was more fluid than once believed.
Sexual orientation is developed based on the three components of sexual identity, sexual behavior and sexual attraction. An active conflict over the cultural acceptability of non-heterosexuality rages worldwide. Gender identity and sexual orientation are two separate aspects of individual identity, although they are often mistaken in the media. Perhaps it is an attempt to reconcile this conflict that leads to a common assumption that one same-sex partner assumes a pseudo-male gender role and the other assumes a pseudo-female role.
For a gay male relationship, this might lead to the assumption that the "wife" handled domestic chores, was the receptive sexual partner, adopted effeminate mannerisms, and perhaps even dressed in women's clothing.
Cohabitating same-sex partners are typically egalitarian when they assign domestic chores. Same-sex domestic partners challenge traditional gender roles in their division of household responsibilities, and gender roles within homosexual relationships are flexible. Carrington observed the daily home lives of 52 gay and lesbian couples and found that the length of the work week and level of earning power substantially affected the assignment of housework, regardless of gender or sexuality.
In many cultures, gender roles, especially for men, simultaneously act as an indicator for heterosexuality, and as a boundary of acceptable behavior for straight people. Therefore, lesbians, gay men and bisexual people may be viewed as exempt from some or all components of gender roles or as having different "rules" they are expected to follow by society.
These modified "rules" for lesbian, gay and bisexual people may also be oppressive. Morgan examines the plight of homosexuals seeking asylum from homophobic persecution who have been turned away by US customs for "not being gay enough"; not conforming sufficiently to standard Western conceptions of the gender roles occupied by gays and lesbians.
Conversely, heterosexual men and women who are not perceived as being sufficiently masculine or feminine, respectively, may be assumed to be, or suspected to be, homosexual, and persecuted for their perceived homosexuality. In terms of the social realities of justice in America, the experiences of diverse groups of people in society have contributed to the shaping of the types of criminals and victims that we have had.
Like Andersen and Hill Collins These patterned actions, in turn, affect [ing] individual consciousness, group interaction, and individual and group access to institutional power and privileges. Both men and women are more heavily involved in minor property and substance abuse offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, men offend at much higher rates than women for all crime categories except prostitution.
This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of lawbreaking such as minor property crimes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the scientific journal, see Sex Roles journal.
Men and women in non-traditional gendered occupations, from top left to bottom right, or top to bottom mobile: Social construction of gender.
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